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CHAPTER LXII
MEDICINE AND SURGERY

Part I .--By Schuyler C. Graves, M. D.

Viewed from a medical standpoint the City of Grand Rapids presents various features for consideration, namely: the original lay of the land, the distribution of timber, the character of the soil, the geological formations, drainage, water supply and early and late types of disease; besides such matters as hospitals, medical organizations, Board of Health, City Physicians, members of the various professions, and medical biographies. It is proposed here to present, as briefly as possible, the essential elements in the medical history of the city, giving greater prominence to features of importance, and omitting matters of no special moment.

MEDICAL PIONEERS

The medical history of Grand Rapids may be said to date from January 1, 1835, on which day Dr. Jason Winslow, then of Gull Prairie, Kalamazoo county, reduced a dislocated hip on the person pf Joel Guild. Grand Rapids was then a village less than one hundred persons, and there being no physician nearer than Gull Prairie, Dr. Winslow was called by Richard Godfroy to attend to Mr. Guild's case.

The first Physician to settle permanently within the limits of the present city was Dr. Stephen A. Wilson, who arrived in August, 1835. In the spring of 1837 he formed a co-partnership with Dr. Charles Shepard, the association lasting until 1839, in the fall of which year Dr. Wilson died. Dr. Charles Shepard, who still practices his profession in this city, was the second resident physician. He arrived October 20, 1825, only two months after Dr. Wilson came. The third was Dr, Gravelle, a young French physician, who came in the spring of 1836, but remained only until the fall of that year. Dr. Jason Winslow, the physician who rendered the first professional service in the community, was the fourth to settle here. He came from Gull Prairie in the spring of 1837. He was of New England stock and had practiced in Stockholm, St. Lawrence County, N. Y., before coming to Michigan. After a residence of six years in Grand Rapids he died, March 15, 1843. Dr. F. J. Higginson was the fifth. He came in 1839. He also was a New England man, a graduate of the Medical Department of Harvard College, and had practiced at Cambridge, Mass. He remained in Grand Rapids only about two years; removed in 1841 to Brattleboro, Vt., where he practiced many years and where he died.

A few of the other pioneer physicians of this community, with date of arrival, are here named in the order of their coming: Alonzo Platt, in 1842; Philander H. Bowman, in 1846; Charles L. Henderson, in 1847; Wenzel Blumrich, in September 1848; Alfred Garlock, in 1849; C. J. Fearing, in 1851; Oscar H. Chipman, February 28, 1852; Sterling W. Allen, in 1852, and D. W. Bliss, in 1854. Dr. Bowman was a classmate of Dr. O. H. Chipman, and had practiced in Canada. He practiced here for nine years, dying in 1859. Dr. Fearing was a Rhode Island man, He lived here only two years.

The trials, discouragement, difficulties and dangers which those old medical heroes were compelled to undergo can scarcely be comprehended in these days of advanced civilization,. The inhabitants of the village being too few to furnish sufficient support, the surrounding country, for miles in every direction, must be traversed by the over-worked, under-fed doctor. Nor were the dangers incident to long country trips insignificant; for with angry rivers to ford and primeval forests to traverse where, often-times, the only indication of a pathway through the woods would be the blazing of trees in addition to which the liability losing one's way, and the possibility of a personal contact with wild beasts ever forced itself upon the mind, the doctor had anything but an easy life. The pecuniary return, also, for such labor was meager and uncertain; many of the accounts in those days being paid in shingles and orders on Amos Roberts and Jefferson Morrison. Thus it will be seen that although the life of the present day may be considered, by many, laborious, yet in comparison with that of the pioneer physician it is light indeed.

TOPOGRAPHY

The Grand Rapids of 1835, as regards to topography, was not like the Grand Rapids of to-day; many of the physical features of that period having been modified by the passage of time and by practical and progressive hand of man. The village stood in what were known as oak openings, with no particular stand of timber very near it on the east side of the river; but on the west side. Along the bluffs and a portion of the river bottom, there was some heavily timbered land. Pine forests, interspersed with tracts of hardwood timber, surrounded that settlement not far away. Gunnison swamp, now a part in the ninth ward; a cedar swamp in the southern part of the present first ward; a marsh extending through the seventh and sixth wards and to the north of the city; Prospect Hill, situated between North Division, Kent and Monroe streets and Crescent avenue, and a "frog pond" near where the Government building now stands, together with various small streams traversing these regions, have entirely disappeared. The soil, therefore, in the early days was exceedingly moist, which fact could not but have an important bearing upon the health of the community. So much for the changeable elements in the topography of the country. As for the permanent, or relatively permanent, features, we notice first of all and briefly, the geological formation.

GEOLOGY

Grand Rapids is one of the few places in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan where actual outcrop of rock appears, and even here it only comes to the surface in the riverbed, although in the Sixth and Seven Wards the covering of soil, in vertical section, is but a few feet. The formation known in common language as the mountain limestone, and is rich in fossils characteristics of this series. It is used largely in the preparation of quick-lime by shippers of this commodity in the city.

The character of the soil is greatly diversified. On the hill, in the northeastern part of the city, are heavy deposits of clay covered with from five to ten feet, in vertical section, of sandy loam, usually mixed with clay. Below the hill and toward the river are noticed quicksand and also coarse sand and boulders, while further down toward the south are large deposits of gravel with clay, in some places, both above and below. On the west side of the river toward the southern part of the city, of what was formerly known as the Gunnison swamp, the soil, which is muck and marl. To the north of the West Side the soil also indicates the former presence of a swamp. Both territories are now occupied by factories and dwelling houses.

Gypsum throughout the region occupied by the present city occurs in drifts, that is, in small quantities here and there; but to the southwest of the city, and extending several miles, it exists in large strata.

SANITATION

Considered from a sanitary standpoint we observe Grand Rapids situated in a snug valley, trending in a north and south direction for several miles, flanked by wooded bluffs, and giving passage to the Grand River, whose rapids are at this point. From the bluffs and uplands on either side of the river flow several small streams, know as Mill Creek, Lamberton Creek, Coldbrook, and Plaster Creek. The lay of the land being, as a general thing, sandy gravelly loam, the advantages afforded by nature in the matter of free drainage by means of the rapidly flowing river with its numerous small tributaries are very pronounced. To the facilities for the natural drainage of this region may be added those of an artificial type. The sewage system of Grand Rapids will compare favorably with that of other cities of like size and importance. There are forty-seven miles of sewers in the city, which represent 32 per cent. of the length of all the streets. Of the different kinds of sewers, there are of brick, 18.3 miles; of vitrified clay pipe, 26.2 miles; of cement, 0.48; and of wood, 1.8 miles.

In regard to the proper disposal of garbage and night soil, a proposition is pending whereby a company agrees to erect and run a garbage crematory, their revenue to be derived from those who patronize or use it. The matter is yet undecided.

WATER SUPPLY.

The citizens of Grand Rapids are supplied with water from two sources: wells (driven and curb) and the river. There are two systems of water distribution in the city that under the control of the city corporation, and that owned and managed by the Grand Rapids Hydraulic Company. Both systems are perfectly organized, and are independent of each other, using many miles of mains and connecting with large stand-pipes situated upon the eastern bluff. The city system uses river water which has been thoroughly filtered through beds of coarse sand and gravel, while the Hydraulic Company gets its water chiefly from large wells dug in the low land adjoining the east bank of the river just north of the city limits. The city water and water from most of the wells situated in the limits of the city is practically unfit for drinking purposes without thorough preliminary boiling, and the Hydraulic water, although purer, cannot be entirely free from suspicion, on account of proximity to the river bed.

PREVELANT DISEASES IN PIONEER AND MODERN TIMES.

The prevalent diseases during the earlier settlement of the Grand River Valley were those associated with the tilling of virgin soil and those connected with the miasma and exhalations from swamps and marshes. Those diseases which owe their origin to the humidity of the atmosphere in connection with sudden changes of temperature, so common in Michigan at the present time, although contributing largely to the list of present ailments, were also prevalent in the earlier days, for obvious reasons. We then see that various forms of malarial fever, from the quaking ague or intermittent, through the remittent, gastric or bilious to the deadly pernicious fever or congestive chill, were, a priori, the prominent diseases of the early times. Then the pulmonary affections, including pneumonias, pleurisies, bronchial diseases and consumption, followed in smaller proportion. Rheumatism, typhoid fever and dysentery, with a scattering of other occasional diseases, were also observed.

The principal surgery at that time included broken limbs, gunshot wounds and injuries in saw-mills.

In the summer of 1849, the physicians of Grand Rapids had much to do in consequence of an outbreak of Asiatic cholera at Grandville; but, although the disease was extensive and the rate of mortality as high as 35 or 40 per cent., it did not visit this locality. However, in the summer of 1854, it did reach the city; but the visitation was light, there being only three or four deaths here from this cause. The records also tell that a severe epidemic of typhoid fever broke out in autumn of 1855, whereby a number of citizens lost their lives. The diseases which characterize the present epoch are all types and grades of severity. The malarial forms are still observed although to much less of a degree than formerly. We also see a great deal of pulmonary disease; but the chief departure from the line of ordinary diseases as witnessed during the period from 1830 to 1860, has been in the direction of continued or typhoid fevers and the contagious and exanthematous diseases; particularly the modern modes of living; particularly dipteria, , scarlet fever, epidemic cerebro-spinal meningitis or spotted fever, measles and whooping cough. We also have erysipelas, puerperal fever and diseases associated with modern modes of living; particularly the dietetic, such as the various forms of gastric or stomach and intestinal disorders; also cholera infantum, which destroys the lives of so many children every summer. Finally we have to record, as a result of the hurry and worry, the crowding into one day of the work which physiologically demands two, three or four days, and by which our professional men and merchants overtax their strained and already overwrought brains, the great prevalence, relatively, of all forms of disease of the mind and nervous system, from the case where overwork has brought on simply temporary congestion of the centres to the varieties of disease which lead their hopeless victims to the solitary cell of an asylum for the insane.

MEDICAL SOCIETIES

There was a "Grand River Medical Association" as early as 1852, which included in its membership at least six physicians of Grand Rapids. Alonzo Platt was Vice President, and John H. Hollister was secretary. It included the profession as far up the river as Ionia. At its annual meeting in June, 1852, it recommended the teaching of the principles of anatomy, physiology and hygiene in the primary schools. There have been eight organizations for common protection, support and instruction , of medical practitioners of Homeopathy. Of the six Regular organizations, three the Grand River Valley Medical Society (established in 1852, and embracing the counties of Kent, Ionia and Ottawa), the Kent County Medical Society (established a few years later), and the Western Medical Society (founded in 1878) included in their membership physicians who were not residents of Grand Rapids, and hence were not distinctively Grand Rapids institutions. The same may be said of one of the two Homeopathic societies, that known as the Kent County Homeopathic Society electing to membership non-residents of the city. Two Regular organizations and one Homeopathic represent the purely Grand Rapids societies.

THE GRAND RAPIDS MEDICAL
AND SURGICAL MEDICAL SOCIETY.

This society was organized March 4, 1856, the principal movers in the organization being Doctors C. L. Henderson, D. W. Bliss, O. H. Chapman, A. Platt and W. H. DeCamp. The society had a lively existence until the was broke out, at which time, for obvious reasons, interest in the matter waned; but in 1865, after the cessation of military hostilities, the interest revived and the society entered upon a long period of active work and growth. It was not until nearly twenty years after the close of the war that the Grand Rapids Medical and Surgical Society become extinct. The list of officers of this society, allowance being made for the gap between the years 1859 and 1865 is as follows:

Year President Vice President Cor. Secretary Rec, Secretary Treasurer 1856 D. W. Bliss W. H. DeCamp A. Platt C. L. Henderson C. L. Henderson 1857 A. Platt W. H. DeCamp C. Shepard L. A. Brewer L. A. Brewer 1858 C. Shepard O. H. Chipman A. Platt W. H. DeCamp O. H. Chipman 1859 A. Platt O. H. Chipman W. H. DeCamp J. F. Grove J. F. Grove 1865 A. Platt O. H. Chipman W. H. DeCamp J. F. Grove J. F. Grove 1866 A. Platt C. L. Henderson G. K. Johnson Wm. Wood Wm. Wood 1867 C. L. Henderson O. H. Chipman G. K. Johnson John Brady John Brady 1868 C. Shepard W. H. DeCamp G. K. Johnson John Brady John Brady 1869 O. H. Chipman A. Platt G. K. Johnson H. M. Short H. M. Short 1870 C. Shepard Z. E. Bliss A. Platt A. Hazelwood A. Hazelwood 1871 G. K. Johnson John Brady G. B. Miller A. Hazelwood A. Hazelwood 1872 John Brady A. Hazelwood Z. E. Bliss S. R. Wooster S. R. Wooster 1873 W. H. DeCamp S. R. Wooster A. Hazelwood E. Boise E. Boise 1874 Z. E. Bliss G. B. Miller F. A. Rutherford F. A. Jones A. Platt J. Albright 1875 Wm. Wood W. Campbell J. Brady E. M. Hume E. M. Hume 1876 G. B. Miller S. R. Wooster J. Brady J. B. Griswold J. B. Griswold 1877 C. Shepard S. R. Wooster J. Brady J. O. Edie J. O. Edie 1878 C. Shepard S. R. Wooster J. Brady C. J. Woolway C. J. Woolway 1879 S. R. Wooster A. Hazelwood E. Boise C. J. Woolway A. Platt 1880 A. Hazelwood Jos. Albright E. Boise J. B. Hosken A. Platt 1881 C. Shepard John Brady G. B. Miller J. B. Hosken G. K. Johnson 1882 C. Shepard John Brady E. Boise J. B. Hosken G. K. Johnson 1883 John Brady G. K. Johnson E. Boise J. B. Hosken A. Hazelwood 1884 C. Shepard G. K. Johnson E. Boise J. McPherson A. Hazelwood 1884 C. Shepard W. H. DeCamp E. Boise J. M. Sligh J. A. McPherson

GRAND RAPIDS ACADEMY OF MEDICINE.

This society is young. It was organized, after the natural dissolution of the old society, late in the fall of 1884, since which time, it has had a rapid growth. The officers who have served from date of organization to the present time are as follows:

Year President Vice President Secretary Treasurer 1885 E. Boise J. B. Griswold R. J. Kirkland E. Watson 1886 D. C. Holley E. Watson D. E. Welsh A. Hazelwood 1887 O. E. Herrick P. Schurtz D. E. Welsh R. J. Kirkland 1888 R. J. Kirkland D. E. Welsh E. D. Disbrow H. E. Locher 1889 J. B. Griswold D. E. Welsh E. D. Disbrow H. E. Locher 1890 S. C. Graves C. H. Johnston E. D. Disbrow H. E. Locher

Since the organization of this society nonresident physicians have been elected members, and inasmuch as nothing in the constitution forbids so doing physicians in the country tributary to Grand Rapids have been cordially invited to become members.

KENT COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY.

November 22, 1889, a meeting of representative physicians was held in the Morton House for the purpose of establishing another regular medical society, to be incorporated under the laws of the State of Michigan, and to include all regular practitioners who were graduates of colleges recognized by the American Medical Association. A temporary organization was effected and the society named "The Kent County Medical Society," which places any further remarks in regard to it beyond the scope of this history inasmuch as it is to become a county and not a city organization. Its officers are: President, S. R. Wooster; First Vice-President, O. C. McDannell, Lowell; Second Vice-President, P. Schurtz; Third Vice-President, D. J. Wallace, Sparta; Secretary, H. W. Catlin; Treasurer, T. D. Bradfield; Editor, O. E. Herrick; Censor for one year, Wm. Wood; Censor for two years, D. E. Welsh; Censor for two years, H. Lupinski; Censor for three years, F. W. Wright; Censor for three years, R. E. Miller.

GRAND RAPIDS SANITARY ASSOCIATION.

This association was organized June 23, 1880, its objects being: 1. To promote a general interest in sanitary science and to diffuse among the people a knowledge of the means of preventing disease. 2. To co-operate with the city authorities in securing the adoption of the most effective methods of improving the sanitary condition of the City. 3. To collect useful information on all subjects pertaining to sanitary science. The following officers were chosen: President, the Rt. Rev. George D. Gillespie; Secretary, Dr. Charles H. Maxim. Several meetings were held at which interesting papers were read, but after some months the interest in the matter waned and the association never revived. No other officers were elected.

U. B. A. HOME AND HOSPITAL.

The Union Benevolent Association is the oldest institution of its kind in Grand Rapids. The chief points of its general history are given in another chapter of this volume. Among the provisions of its articles of incorporation is one providing that one-half of its ten Trustees shall be men and one-half shall be women; these to be chosen annually. The building has a front of 113 feet facing College avenue by 66 feet on Lyon street, and is 52 feet high. There are six entrances to the ground floor, the main one being on the College avenue side. The structure is a handsome three-story building of stone and white brick. [See illustrative cut on page 353.] The hospital rooms are on the second floor a ward for men, a ward for women, a nurses' room opening into the two, and a dispensary supplied with medicines and instruments. Here are also two rooms used by the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad Company for the care of injured employees. Fifteen other (private) rooms are on the same floor, and one for the second matron. The third floor has twenty-two rooms, and in this part of the building is also the operating room. The attic is sufficiently large for twelve additional rooms. All the appointments of the building are excellent-heating, ventilation, cooking, storage, water supply, elevator and other conveniences. The property as it stands is valued at about $55,000. Of prime importance in connection with the U. B. A. is the training school for nurses, established in f 886 as an adjunct to the hospital department. The following staff of physicians and surgeons has been appointed for the current year: 1. CHIEF OF STAFF Charles Shepard, M. D. 2. SURGICAL STAFF. Consulting surgeons, John Brady, M. D., Samuel R. Wooster, M.D. Visiting Surgeons, Schuyler C. Graves, M. D., Perry Schurtz, M. D., William F. Hake, M. D. 3. MEDICAL STAFF. Consulting physicians, George K. Johnson, M. D., Joseph B. Griswold, M. D. Visiting Physicians, Eugene Boise, M. D., James A. McPherson, M. D., Collins H, Johnston, M. D., Hugo Lupinski, M. D. 4. OBSTETRICAL STAFF. Consulting Obstetrician, Arthur Hazelwood, M. D. Visiting Obstetricians, Ernest D. Disbrow, M. D., Wilbur F. Hoyt, M. D., Henry Huist, M. D., Ralph H. Spencer, M. D. 5. OPTHAMALIC AND AURAL STAFF. Visiting Oculists and Aurists: Reynold J, Kirkland, M. D.; D . Emmett Welsh, M. D.; D. Milton Greene, M. D. 6. GYNECOLOGICAL AND PEDIATRIC STAFF. ­Consulting Gynecologist, et al: Orris E. Herrick, M. D. Visiting Gynecologists, et al: Frances A. Rutherford, M. D.; Emma Nichols-Wanty, M. D.; Bessie Earle, M. D.; Caspar M. Droste, M. D. 7. HOUSE PHYSICIAN. Edwin B. Strong, M. D.

It is but fitting in this connection, to speak of the deep interest manifested in and assistance to, this work for years by Dr. Charles Shepard, the Hon. Thomas D. Gilbert, Mrs. S. L. Withey, and many others, both among the living and the dead, in regard to whose labors the present building is a noble and enduring monument.

ST. MARK'S HOSPITAL

A historical sketch of St. Mark's Home and Hospital is given on pages 354-55 of this volume. Something pertaining to the medical and surgical department may properly be added here. It should also be noted that the Matrons, from the beginning, in succession have been: Mrs. Sarah Brooks, 1873-76; Miss Robinson, 1876-77; Miss Woodhams, 1877-78; Mrs. S. S. Reilly, 1878-79; Miss Harriet Evart, 1879-8(; Miss Louise Davis, 1880-86; Mrs. Irene Slater, 1886 and since. The Present Secretary, Mrs. Byron R. Pierce, has filled that position with excellent fidelity since 1874, continuously. Mrs. P. R. L. Pierce has rendered long and acceptable service as Treasurer. The following ladies are upon the Board of Managers (1890): Madams C. H. Granger, Campbell Fair, E. D. Collins, George Kendall, E. P. Fuller, S. P. Wormley, A. Preusser, P. R. L. Pierce, W. R. Shelby, A. E. Worden, Joseph Penney, W. F. Bulkley, F. Letellier, G. C. Fitch, F. A. Gorham, J, G, MacBride, A. J. Bowne, and B. R. Pierce.

Board of Trustees (April, 1890): The Rev. Dr. Campbell Fair, President; C. S. Hazeltine, Secretary and Treasurer; G. K. Johnson, Willard Barnhart, Samuel Sears, James G. McBride, Philo C. Fuller.

The site of this hospital building, corner of Bostwick and East Bridge streets, is handsome, healthful and elevated, affording a fine view of a large part of the city. Its capacity is large, furnishing space for one hundred beds, and it has all the necessary and convenient departments and accessories of a well-equipped, modern, metropolitan hospital. The woodwork finish throughout the interior is of handsomely polished hardwood, and the heating and ventilating arrangements are as near perfect as ingenuity and science could devise.

Dr. Alonzo Platt was the first physician in charge of this institution, he also having had much to do with its establishment. After Dr. Platt's death in 1882 Dr. G. K. Johnson became physician in charge, retaining his relation with the organization until the present day. The House Physicians serving under the supervision of Dr. Johnson, in the old building, have been Dr. R. Humphrey Stevens (1880-1886), and Dr. Herbert W. Catlin (14886-902). The following is the staff list of the new hospital. CHIEF OF STAFF. George K. Johnson SURGICAL STAFF. Consulting Surgeon, George K. Johnson, M. D., John Brady, M. D., Visiting Surgeons, Samuel R. Wooster, M. D., Perry Schultz, M. D., Schuyler C. Graves, M. D. MEDICAL STAFF. Consulting Physicians, Joseph B. Griswold, M. D., Arthur Hazelwood, M. D. Visiting Physicians, J. Orton Edie, M. D., Collins H. Johnston, M. D. , Caspar M. Droste, M. D. OBSTERICAL, GYNECOLOGICAL AND PEDIATRIC STAFF. Consulting Obstetricians et al, Charles Shepard, M. D., Orris E. Herrick, M. D. Visiting Obstetricians, et al, Eugene Boise, M. D. Emma Nichols-Wanty, M. D., Bessie Earle, M. D., Reuben Peterson, M. D. OPTHAMALIC AND AURAL STAFF. Visiting Oculists and Aurists, Reynold J. Kirkland, M. D., D. Emmett Welsh, M. D., D. Milton Greene, M. D. PATHOLOGIST AND MICROSCOPIST. Hugo Lupinski, M. D. ACTING RESIDENT PHYSICIAN AND SUPERINTENDENT. Reuben Peterson, M. D.

HOSPITAL FOR CONTAGIOUS DISEASES.

In 1887 a hospital for contagious diseases was built at the northeastern limit of the city. It is a brick structure one story in height, with a roomy attic and high basement; well lighted and thoroughly ventilated, has warm and cold water throughout the building, and is heated by hot air furnaces. There are nine wards, which will accommodate altogether about twenty-four patients, thoroughly equipped with all the necessary conveniences for the care of the sick. The building is in a grove on a side hill, easily accessible, and isolated from other habitations. The basement is occupied by a keeper who has charge of the hospital and whose services, when not needed at the hospital, are at the command of the Board of Health. The cooking is done in the basement. The keeper receives renumeration for boarding patients from the health authorities. The cost of the grounds was $2,000. Cost of building, $5,000. Entire cost of building and grounds and furnishing, $8,000. This hospital has not yet been occupied by patients, but stands ready for use whenever its accommodations shall be needed.

BOARD OF HEALTH.

Prior to 1871 there was no organized Board of Health, the City Physician being supposed to be amply capable of attending to sanitary matters; but at that time, the population of the city being in the neighborhood of 20,000, it became evident that matters pertaining to sanitation were of sufficient magnitude to demand the supervision of organized effort. The good health of the city was of prime importance. Accordingly the first Board of Health was organized in 1871, and the following is a list of those serving upon the Board in chronological order: 1871-72 Ebenezer Anderson, Chairman; Wm. Leppig, John Gezon, Jr. 1873 Ebenezer Anderson, Chairman; Wm. Leppig, Samuel A. Winchester. 1874-75 Jared Wells, Chairman; Wm. Leppig, Samuel A. Winchester. 1876 Jared Wells, Chairman; Alfred B. Turner, E. F. Teele. 1877 Alfred B. Turner, Chairman; G. B. Miller, Jared Wells. 1878 G. B. Miller, Chairman; Alfred B. Turner, Jared Wells. 1879 Jared Wells, Chairman; Henry Lever, J. H. Jones. (Aug. 5 Henry Lever resigned, and Henry Grinnell was appointed to fill vacancy.) 1880 J. H. Jones, Chairman; H. S. Solomon, C. H. Maxim. 1881 Geo. Love, Chairman; Dirk J. Doornink, C. H. Maxim. 1882 H. N. Cargill, Chairman; Geo. Love, Dirk J. Doornink. (July 11 Doornink resigned, and J. H. Jones was appointed to fill vacancy.) 1883 Kryn Dykema, Chairman; J. H. Jones, H. N. Cargill. 1884 Kryn Dykema, Chairman; S. G. Ketcham, H. N. Cargill. 1885 Kryn Dykema, Chairman; S. G. Ketcham, H. N. Cargill. 1886 S. G. Ketcham, Chairman; Wm. A. Wilson, H. N. Cargill. 1887 During this year the Board was remodeled, at which time the Mayor and President of the Council became ex officio members. The Board reorganized was as follows: Thomas D. Bradfield, President; H. N. Cargill, Secretary; James D. Robinson, Hugo Thum, and Mayor E. B. Dikeman and President of Council J. H. Hayward ex officio members. Dr. Hugo Lupinski was appointed Health Officer at a salary of $1,500 per annum. 1888 Thomas D. Bradfield, President; H. N. Cargill, Secretary; C. W. Calkins, Mayor I. M. Weston and President of Council Maurice Shanahan; Dr. Hugo Lupinski, Health Officer. Aug. 1, 1888, the Board appointed Dr. Edward Watson Health Officer, in place of Dr. Hugo Lupinski. 1889 C. W. Calkins, President; H. N. Cargill, Secretary; James D. Robinson, Dr. D. Emmett Welsh, Mayor John Killean, and President of Council Fred Saunders; Dr. Wm. G. Saunders, Health Officer.

CITY PHYSICIANS.

In 1857 Dr. J. M. Alden was appointed City Physician, and at intervals other similar appointments were afterward made, but before 1866 there was no regular term of service. Among those who acted in the capacity of City Physician prior to 1866 were Drs. James F. Grove, Oscar H. Chipman, John Brady, Wenzel Blumrich, Henry G. Saunders, and E. J. Mainhard. Since that time the office has been regularly filled for definite terms, by the following physicians: Sterling W. Allen, 1866-69; Frances A. Rutherford, 1870; Daniel A. Laubenstein, 1871; George K. Johnson, 1872, William G. Saunders, 1873: William Campbell, 1874; William Wood, 1875. Joseph B. Griswold, 1876-77; Eugene Boise, 1878; Linus De Puy, 1879; Walter B. Morrison 1880; Samuel R. Wooster, 1881; Horatio S. Holden, 1882; Albert E. Luton, 1883; Charles H. Maxim, 1884; Horatio S. Holden, 1885-87; Casper Al. Droste, 1888; Fred W. Wright, 1889.

BIOGRAPHIES OLD SCHOOL OR REGULAR.

Joseph Albright, M. D., was born in the city of St. Catherines, Ont., Dec. 26, 1837. He graduated at the Toronto Normal School in 1865, and in 1868 began the study of medicine; took one course of lectures at Bellevue Hospital Medical College and then entered the Medical Department of Trinity University, Toronto, Canada. There he graduated in April, 1872, and settled for practice at Oxford, Lapeer county, Michigan, but remained there only one year coming to Grand Rapids in June, 1873. Dr. Albright served a term as Alderman the Grand Rapids Common Council (1883-84), representing the seventh ward. He a member of the Michigan State Medical Society and the American Medical Association.

Sterling Way Allen, M. D., who was one of the old medical guard in Grand Rapids, was born in Springfield, Otsego county, N. Y., July 27, 1801. He commenced the study of medicine at Rochester, N. Y., 1 1822, graduating in 1825. After practicing twenty-seven years in Clarkson and Brockport, N. Y., and at Pontiac, Mich., he cam to Grand Rapids in 1852. He practiced in this city until his death, which occurred May 16, 1883. William Henry Aylesworth, M. D., was born May 17, 1854, in Adrian, Lenawee county, Michigan; took a literary course in Adrian College (1875-79); graduated in medicine at the University of Michigan in June 1882; practiced at Cedar Springs, Kent county, Michigan, from 1882 to 1887, and came to Grand Rapids Nov. 1, 1887. Is a member of the Michigan State Medical Society and the Union Medical Society of Northern, Michigan.

Louis Barth, M. D., was born at Krotoschin, Prussia, Nov. 21, 1859. He entered the gymnasium in 1869, passing the maturity examination in the spring of 1878. In 1878 he went to the Medical University, of Breslau, Prussia, remaining two semesters; then wen t to the Medical College of Vienna for six months (one semester); took his theoretical examinations after six months at Berlin, under Virchow, Nov. 7, 1880, and had hospital experience in Berlin, under Liebreich, Langenbeck, Frerich and Schroeder, until 1881. He took the degree of Doctor of Medicine, Surgery and Obstetrics at Wurzburg, Bavaria, Dec. 21, 1881; left that place in January, 1882, for London, England, continuing medical studies in the hospitals there; came to the United States in July, 1882, and settled in Grand Rapids the latter part of September in the same year.

Jacob Bentum, M. D., was born August 12, 1830, at Amsterdam, Holland; was graduated at the University of Leyden in 1853; practiced at Amsterdam six years, being connected with an Amsterdam hospital four years, and came to America in 1862 first to Muscatine, Iowa, then to Grand Rapids, Sept. 11 1863. He died in this city, after practicing medicine twenty-five years, July 28, 1888, of typhoid fever.

Leonidas E. Best, M. D., was born on a farm in Elgin county, Ontario, Canada, March 10, 1844. His grandfather, Dr. James Best, came from England with the expedition which accompanied the famous Col. Talbot, who was sent by the English Government to settle Upper Canada. The Doctor graduated in arts from the Baptist Institute at Woodstock, Ontario, in September, 1880, and was apprenticed in medicine for three years to Dr. McLaughlin, of Ionia, Ontario, in the fall of 1861. He was graduated in April, 1865, by the Medical Department of the University of Victoria, Toronto, and immediately went to Chicago, where he was appointed Second Assistant Surgeon in the Military Barracks at that a place, but soon returned to Canada, and practiced in London, Ontario, ten years (1865-1875), then two years in Overisel, (Allegan county, Michigan. In 1878 he settled in Grand Rapids, where he has remained ever since.

DOCTOR WILLARD BLISS, M. D., during some seven years prior to the War of the Rebellion was among the best known and prominent physicians of Grand Rapids and the region about. He was born in the town of Brutus, Cayuga county, N. Y., August 18,1825; son of Obediah and Marilla (Pool) Bliss, in early life residents of Savoy, Massachusetts. In his youth the family moved to Ohio, where he afterward entered the Medical Department of the Western Reserve College and graduated therefrom in the early part of 1845Hc began practice in his profession St Chagrin Falls, Ohio; thence removed to Cleveland, and in 1851 to Ionia, Michigan. From the latter place, in 1854, he came to Grand Rapids, where he quickly took position in the front rank in his profession and in the popular regard, and had an excellent and extensive practice until the breaking out of the war. He also took much and pleasurable interest in social life; especially in musical circles himself, his sister, Mrs. J. C. Wenham, and others of the family being naturally gifted with taste and talent in music. May 13, 1861, he was commissioned Surgeon of the Third Regiment Michigan Infantry; went with that gallant body of troops to the front, and in September of the same year was promoted to Major and Surgeon of U. S. Volunteers the chief field of his labors being in hospitals at and near Washington. March 13, 1865, he was breveted Colonel U. S. Volunteers, "for faithful and meritorious service," and was mustered out with honor Dec. 8, 1865. Dr. Bliss became noted as an expert in surgery, and performed many bold operations in that department of his profession. He had charge of the Armory Hospital. After the war he remained settled in Washington and practiced there until his death, some twenty-three years; much of the time also holding a position in the Board of Health of the District of Columbia. When President Garfield was stricken down Dr. Bliss was called by Secretary of War Robert T. Lincoln, and was the attending physician at his bedside at Washington and at Elberson until that soldier-statesman breathed his last. Dr. Bliss married, at Cleveland, O., May 23, 1849, Sophia Prentiss, daughter of the Rev. Samuel Prentiss, a Baptist clergyman of that place. They had four children: 1, Elliss Baker, born April 25, 1850, in 1878 Chief Clerk in the office of Register of Vital Statistics for the District of Columbia (office held by Dr. Bliss as member of the Board of Health), now a dentist in London; 2, Clara Bliss Hinds, M. D., now practicing medicine in Washington, D. C.; 3, Willie Prentiss, born in February, 1854, and died (by an accident) August 17, 1856; and, 4, Eugenie Prentiss, born at Grand Rapids, Aug. 10, 1855, married Dec. 7, 1875, George B. Milburn, a real estate dealer of Washington. Mrs. Dr. Bliss died in Washington, D. C., in January, 1888; and Dr. D. W. Bliss died at the same place Feb. 21, 1889, as the result of apoplexy or heart failure. At Washington the family lived in a house built by John Quincy Adams. Zenas E. Bliss, M. D., one of Grand Rapids most gifted physicians and surgeons, was born at Eaton, Madison county, N. Y, July 4, 1832. He passed his childhood at Chagrin Falls, Ohio, removing in 1851 to Ionia, Mich. He began the study of medicine at Chagrin Falls in 1850, and at Ionia continued it in the office of his brother, Dr. D. W. Bliss. He graduated at the University of Michigan, taking the degree of Doctor of Medicine with the class of 1855, and practiced at Ionia until 1861, with the exception of four months in 1858-59 passed in the hospitals of Philadelphia and New York. He entered the army in 1861 as Assistant Surgeon of the Third Michigan Infantry; participated in such capacity in the battles of Blackburn Ford and first Bull Run, and served until Oct. 15, 1861, when he was commissioned Surgeon; was with the regiment through the Peninsular campaign, and Feb. 27, 1863, received from President Lincoln a commission as Surgeon of U. S. Volunteers, his rank to date from Sept. 12, 1862. He had an extensive hospital experience during the war; was appointed by the Secretary of War a Medical Purveyor, U. S. Army, Dec. 31, 1864, and stationed in Baltimore, Md., and was mustered out of service Feb. 2, 1866. Breveted Lieut. Col. May 22, 1866, for faithful service, to rank from Jan. 26, 1866. He spent the winter of 1866-67 in Europe, continuing his medical studies in the hospitals of London and Paris. He settled at Grand Rapids in the spring of 1867 and practiced until 1874, when, his health failing, he was compelled to seek relief in travel abroad. He spent the winter of 1874-75 in Southern France, and returned in the summer of 1875; but his health continuing poor he withdrew from active participation in professional labor. He was commissioned a member of the Michigan State Board of Health for the term of six years, July 30, 1873, but served only one year on account of ill health. He served nearly eight years (1869-77) on the Board of U. S. Examining Surgeons for Pensions at Grand Rapids, and at the time of his death was President of the Board. He was a member of the following societies and associations: American Medical Association, American Public Health Association, Michigan State Medical Society, Grand Rapids Medical and Surgical Society; was President of the latter society during 1874. Dr. Bliss married, Sept. 16, 1856, Marion Carr, only child of Archibald Carr, of Ionia, Mich. He died of consumption, April 23, 1877, and was buried at Grand Rapids.

Wenzel Blumrich, M. D., was born in Friedland, Bohemia, May 26, 1812, and graduated in medicine at the Charles Ferdinand University, Prague, Bohemia, July 31, 1839. He received three latin diplomas, one each for medicine, surgery and obstetrics. He practiced in Kratzau, Bohemia, during nine years subsequent to his graduation, and then removed to the United States, settling in Grand Rapids, Sept. 26, 1848. Dr. Blumrich was a man of scholarly attainment, cultured, refined and, thoroughly educated. Was proficient in the knowledge of Latin, German, French and Spanish. He died in Grand Rapids, Dec. 20, 1862.

Eugene Boise, M. D., was born in Wellington, Lorain county, Ohio, Nov. 29, 1846; was educated in Oberlin College, graduating therefrom, in arts, with the class of 1867. Prior to entering college he was in the war, serving as private in the 150th Regiment Ohio National Guard for four months, the time of enlistment. Took two courses of medicine, 1868-69, in the University of Michigan, graduating in 1869, also taking a degree (ad eundum) a year later (1870) at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 23d street, New York city. Had the advantages of hospital experience in Charity Hospital, New York (1870-71), and the New York City Fever Hospital (1871). Nearly all of 1872 he spent in study abroad, principally in London and Vienna. He settled in Grand Rapids in September, 1872, where he still practices his profession. Was one of the U. S. Examining Surgeons for Pensions from 1873 to 1885. Is a member of Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine, Michigan State Medical Society, and American Medical Association. Visiting Physician to St. Mark's and the U. B. A. Hospitals.

Teunis Ardenne Boot, M. D., was born April 1, 186i, at Holland, Ottawa county, Michigan. Graduated at the Medical Department of Michigan in Grand Rapids in September, 1886. Is a member of Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine.

Thomas Deane Bradfield, M. D., first saw the light in the State of Indiana, Jan. 12, 1843. He took two courses of medicine at the University of Michigan (1867-68) and graduated at the Detroit Medical College in the spring of 1869. He entered practice as surgeon of the Copper Falls Copper Mine, Keweenaw county, Michigan, remaining there ten years. In 1879 he came to Grand Rapids, but staid in the city only a year, returning to Lake Superior in 1880. From 1880 to 1884 he was surgeon of the Delaware Copper Mine, in Keweenaw county, and at the end of this time came permanently to Grand Rapids. Dr. Bradfield was County Physician of Keweenaw during his residence there; was also Superintendent of the Poor, Supervisor and U. S. Pension Surgeon. He represented the counties of Keweenaw, Ontonagon, Baraga and Isle Royal in the State Legislature at the sessions of 1875 and 1879. Was a member of the Board of U. S. Pension Examining Surgeons in this city during President Cleveland's administration.

John Brady, M. D., was born August 18, 1837, in Ireland; came to the United States in 1855, and settled at Seneca Falls, N. Y. Had classical instruction at an academy in that place. Entered the Medical Department of Buffalo University in the fall of 1857, graduating therefrom, after three full courses of lectures, February 19, 1860. Had good hospital experience under able instructors. Settled in Grand Rapids shortly after graduation and practiced until October, 1862, when he entered the Union Army as Assistant Surgeon, serving in Jackson, Mich., and Memphis, Tenn., six months, in the military hospitals. In May, 1863, he was ordered to leave hospital and join the 45th Regiment Illinois Infantry in the field, at Milliken's Bend, La.; participating afterward with the regiment in the battles of Raymond, Jackson and Champion Hills, and the assaults upon Vicksburg. He at one time had charge of the Union soldiers liberated from Andersonville Prison. Resigned from the army and re-entered civil practice at Grand Rapids in 1866, becoming a charter member of the Michigan State Medical Society the same year. Is a member of the American Medical Association; has twice been President of the Grand Rapids Medical and Surgical Society (1872 and 1883), member of the Western Michigan Medical Society, and at present is a member of the Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine. In 1883-8, he spent a year abroad as attending physician to the late John Clancy, a good share of which time was occupied in the study of medicine in Paris. Is a member of the Grand Rapids Board of U. S. Examining Surgeons for Pensions. Has been Coroner of Kent county (first elected in 1870, and re-elected twice); has been a member of the International Medical Congress since the meeting at Washington, D. C., in 1887, and is Consulting Surgeon to St. Mark's and the U. B. A. Hospitals.

Lyman A. Brewer, M. D., was born in Ontario county, N. Y., in 1817. Attended lectures at Geneva, Buffalo, and Cleveland, graduating at the latter place (Western Reserve College, Medical Department) in 1843. Took a post course at Ann Arbor, and soon settled in Jonesville. Mich., where he practiced until 1854, at which time he came to Grand Rapids. He practiced with Dr. DeCamp until 1857. In 1858 he went to Cleveland, and when the war broke out served in the army four years. After the war he was connected professionally with an Indian Commission in the Rocky Mountain region, remaining in that country from 1865 to 1870, when he returned to Hillsdale county, but practiced only six years longer, his death occurring in 1876.

Joseph Alfred Carbert, M. D., was born in Orangeville, Ontario, Canada, February 4, 1856; graduated at the University of Victoria College, Coburg, Ontario, May 12, 1886, taking the degrees of M. D. and C. M.; spent four months in 1886 at the New York Polyclinic, and settled in Grand Rapids, June 1, 1886.

Herbert William Catlin, M. D., was born in Tecumseh, Lenawee county, Michigan, August 16, 1861; graduated at the Detroit Medical College in February, 1883; practiced in Tecumseh one year after graduation; then removed to Grand Rapids (May, 1884), where he still lives. Member of the State Medical Society and Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine.

Oscar Harry Chipman, M. D., one of the oldest surviving members of the "old guard" of medical men in this city, is descended from Puritan stock direct from the Mayflower. He was born in Madrid, St. Lawrence county, N. Y., Nov. 16, 1807. In early manhood he attended the St. Lawrence Academy. The Doctor began the study of medicine under the tutelage of Dr. John H. McChesney, a prominent physician at that time, of Potsdam, and graduated in the spring of 1833 at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Western New York, then in the town of Fairfield, Herkimer county. In June, 1833, he removed to Michigan and settled in Oakland county, where he practiced until 1852, at which time he came to Grand Rapids. Dr. Chipman, until the past two or three years, was engaged in active practice; but since that time has practically retired from regular work, although he retains his interest in things medical, and is a frequent attendant at the meetings of the Medical Society. Drs. Chipman and Charles Shepard are the only physicians who remain of the early practitioners in the Grand River Valley.

William Clarke, M. D., was born in Ireland, in 1843; graduated from the Detroit Medical College, 1871; College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, 1877; Queen's University of Canada, 1879, and the Board of Medical Examiners, London, Eng., 1880. Has practiced in Ottawa county twelve years; came to Grand Rapids in 1883

Oscar Lewis Dales, M. D., was born in Uhrichsville, Tuscarawas county, Ohio, September 23, 1856; graduated at the Medical Department of Wooster University Cleveland, Ohio, March 4, 1880; practiced four years subsequent to graduation at Byron, Ohio, handling a drug store during a portion, of this time; went to Jacksonville, Florida in 1884, where he practiced two years and came to Grand Rapids June 6, 1886. Was Assistant City Physician in 1887.

William Henry DeCamp, M. D., was born in Mt. Morris, Livingston county, New York, November 6, 1825. He studied medicine with Dr. Lewis G. Ferris, of Mt. Morris, and Dr. C. C. Chaffee, of Nunda, N. Y.; took one course of lectures in the Medical Department of New York University, and two in the Medical College of Geneva, N. Y., graduating from the latter institution in February, 1847, and entered into practice at Grove Center, Allegany county, N. Y., remaining four years, after which he practiced for the same number of years at Hunt's Hollow, Livingston county. His health failing, he decided to go west and establish himself in the drug business; accordingly opened a drug store in Grand Rapids in May, 1855, continuing the business until burned out in 1857. This fire destroyed not only his stock, but his library, instruments, furniture, and collection of stuffed birds and animals, which he had been gathering for many years. Reduced by this misfortune to a low financial status, he recommenced the practice of medicine, in which he is still engaged. The Doctor took an active part in the late war, being appointed Surgeon of the First Michigan Engineers and Mechanics by Austin Blair, the "War Governor" of Michigan, Sept. 12, 1861, and serving three years as such, until discharged by expiration of time of enlistment, at Atlanta, Ga., Oct. 26, 1864. He was assigned to the position of Post Medical Director at Harrodsburg, Ky., from Oct. 20, 1862, to Jan. 24, 1863, where 1,500 rebel wounded had been stationed by Gen. Bragg in his retreat from Kentucky, after the battle of Perryville. Dr. DeCamp was elected President of tile Michigan State Medical Society for 1868, and also President of the Grand Rapids Medical and Surgical Society for 1872-73. As a naturalist, particularly in regard to geology and conchology, the Doctor takes high rank; his relation to the development of the Michigan salt industry having been, from his knowledge of geology, very important.

Linus De Puy, M. D., was born near the city of Rochester, N. Y., April 28, 1820. Shortly after he came of age he began the study of medicine, at Albion, Mich. He attended lectures two winters at the Medical Department of the Western Reserve College, at that time in Willoughby, Ohio. In 1860 he went to Ann Arbor, Mich., and graduated there from the Medical Department of the University of Michigan in the spring of 1862. He settled at Grand Rapids during the same year and practiced continuously eleven years, then retired from the practice of medicine and removed to Chicago, where he engaged in the manufacture and sale of medicinal extracts. His health failing, he returned to Grand Rapids in 1877, but did not practice much. He was City Physician during 1879. His death, from cancer of the stomach, occurred in this city, Jan. 10, 1880, in the 60th year of his age.

James Alexander DeVore, M. D., was born at Lansing, Tompkins county, N. Y., May 21, 1853. He was graduated from the Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery, Cincinnati, Ohio, in June, 1877, and began the practice of medicine at Auburn, N. Y., but remained there less than a year, removing to Freeport, Barry county, Mich., in 1878. He practiced at this point until the fall of 1887, when he settled in Grand Rapids. Is a member of the Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine.

Ernest David Disbrow, M. D., was born at East Saginaw, Mich., Feb. 8, 1858, and graduated at Rush Medical College, Chicago, Ill., with the class of 1880. Was Demonstrator of Chemistry in Rush College from 1878 to 1880, and Medical Superintendent of St. Mark's Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah, from 1881 to 1883. Has been Division Surgeon, Union Pacific Railroad (Utah); Deputy Coroner of Summit county, Utah; Deputy U. S. Marshal, Utah. Is a member of Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine, and Secretary of the same. Settled for practice in Grand Rapids in 1886. Is visiting Obstetrician to the U. B. A. Hospital.

Caspar M. Droste, M. D., was born at Westphalia, Clinton county, Mich., October 18, 1861; graduated in Arts at St. James College, Berlin, Canada, in 1882; took two courses of medicine in the Michigan University (1883-84), and graduated at the College of Physicians, Chicago, Ill., March 10, 1885. He settled in Grand Rapids May to, 1885. Was appointed City Physician May, 1888, and served one year. Member of Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine. Visiting Physician to St. Mark's Hospital and Visiting Gynecologist to the U. B. A Hospital, and a member of the Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine.

Bessie Earle, M. D., one of the young women physicians of Grand Rapids, was born in Richland, Kalamazoo county, Mich., Nov. 27, 1856. She was graduated at the Women's Medical College, Chicago, Ill., with the class of 1884, and immediately went to Boston, Mass., where she spent a year in the New England Hospital for women and children in that city. She also spent two years and a half as assistant physician in the New State Hospital for the insane at Worcester, Mass. The Doctor has also had experience in the hospital of Dr. Byford, Of Chicago. While residing in Massachusetts she was a member of the Massachusetts State Medical Society. Settled at Grand Rapids in April, 1888. Is Visiting Gynecologist to St. Mark's and the U. B. A. Hospitals.

James Orton Edie, M. D., was born June 14, 1837, at Hebron, Washington county, New York, and comes from Puritan stock. One of his paternal relatives, the late Rev. John Edie, D. D., of Edinburgh, was a member of the European Council for the revision of the New Testament, which co-operated with the American Council to produce the new version of the Bible. Dr. Edie studied medicine at Oswego, N. Y., for a year or two, and then entered the medical department of the University of Michigan, taking the course of lectures for 1859-60; afterward graduating with the class of 1864 from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa. He has practiced in the Grand River Valley, with but a brief interval, during his entire professional career. He came to Grand Rapids in 1875 intending to devote his time to lumbering interests; but soon drifted into the old medical lines, and has practiced here ever since. He is a life member of the Alumni Association of Jefferson Medical College, a member of the American Medical Association, Michigan State Medical Society, and the Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine. Has been Recording Secretary of the now defunct Grand Rapids Medical and Surgical Society, chairman of the executive committee of the State Society, and twice County Physician of Kent county. At present is visiting physician to St. Mark's Hospital.

Eliphalet Gustin Edwards, M. D., was born in London, Ontario, Canada, May 26, 1833. Graduated in medicine and surgery at the McGill University, Montreal, Canada, in 1855. Licentiate, College of Physicians and Surgeons, L. C., 1855. Practiced thirty-two years in London, Ont., and its vicinity, coming to Grand Rapids in October, 1887. Was one of the staff surgeons connected with the London (Ont.) Hospital six years, and Consulting Surgeon in the same hospital four years; member of College of Physicians and Surgeons (1866), President of the same college in 1875-76; member of the Medical Council, Ont., nineteen years (1869-83); Surgeon Eighth Battalion Middlesex Militia thirty years; member Ontario Medical Association, and also member of London (Ont.) Medical Association.

John Fletcher Failing, M. D., was born in Wayne county, N. Y., Oct. 25, 1841; graduated at the Medical Department of Buffalo University in 1868. Has practiced in Illinois and in Kalamazoo and Van Buren counties, Mich. Settled at Grand Rapids in 1883. Is a member of the Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine.

William Fuller, M. D., was born in London, Ontario, July 5, 1842; Studied medicine there from 1856 to 1862; received the degrees of M. D. and C. M. from McGill University, Montreal, in 1866; from 1867 to 1874 was Demonstrator of Anatomy and Curator of the Museum in McGill University, and from 1874 to 1877 was Professor of Anatomy in Bishop's College, Montreal. Settled at Grand Rapids in 1877. Member of College of Physicians and Surgeons of Quebec, Canada Medical Association, and Michigan State Medical Society.

ALFRED GARLOCK, M. D., was for thirty years and more among the most widely known of the physicians of this city and county. He was born at Newark, N Y, December 18, 1824. He studied medicine at Palmyra, and graduated for his profession at Buffalo in the spring of 1849. In 1849 he came to Grand Rapids and opened an office in the Irving Hall building, and very soon found himself busy in an extensive practice. From there a few years later he removed his office to the north side of. Monroe street, and then about 1860, or soon after, to Luce's Block, where it remained until his death; his residence being situated on the east side of Barclay street, a little north of Fulton the present family homestead. Dr. Garlock married, August 26, 1849, Jane Vanderhoof, of Plainsville, N. Y. He died at his home in this city, of pneumonia, February 17,1884. His widow and two daughters, Clara and May, are yet residents here. Dr. Garlock had a very large patronage, and patients so crowded upon him that for many years he was kept busy early and late, much of the time night and day, and literally worn down to his death. He had a frank, genial, pleasing way, that won the confidence of his patients. Naturally gentle and kind-hearted, he was also generous to those in need, and to gave much gratuitous service. Few, even of his profession, leave a richer legacy of love and grateful remembrance than has the subject of this brief sketch.

Schuyler Colfax Graves, M. D., was born at Kalamazoo, Mich., March 6, 1858, but passed most of his boyhood days in Grand Rapids. He was graduated at the High School here in the summer of 1877, and in the fall of the same year entered the Literary Department of the University of Michigan with the class of 1881, taking the studies of the Freshman year. The following year he matriculated in the Medical Department, taking his degree, after a three years course, June 30, 1881. Was Assistant Demonstrator of Anatomy in his alma mater during the session of 1881 and 1882, when he resigned to enter practice. Went to Charlevoix, Mich., in July, 1882, and practiced there three years, with the exception of the winter of 1883-84, at which time he was surgeon of the Delaware copper mine, Keweenaw county, Lake Superior, Mich. Was elected Coroner of Charlevoix county in the fall of 1884. Returned to his old home in Grand Rapids in June, 1885, and has practiced here ever since. Was appointed County Physician (Kent county) and served for the years 1887-88. Member of the Michigan State Medical Society, and the Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine. President of the latter organization for the current year (1890). Visiting surgeon to St. Mark's and the U. B. A. Hospitals.

David Milton Greene, M. D., was born at Rochester, Mich., March 22, 1853, and graduated at Ann Arbor (Medical Department, University of Michigan), with the class of 1881. Practiced general medicine seven years at Plainfield and Leslie, Mich., then went to New York city and took a post course at the New York Post Graduate School. In New York (1888-89) he had much experience in the Manhattan Eye and Ear Hospital, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, Bellevue Hospital Nose and Throat Department, and New York Free Dispensary. Practice limited to diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat. Settled in Grand Rapids June 15, 1889. Member of Michigan State Medical Society, and Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine. Ophthalmic and Aural Surgeon to St. Mark's and the U. B. A. Hospitals.

Joseph Bascom Griswold, M. D., was born in Vermontville, Mich., June 21, 1842; entered the Agricultural College at Lansing in 1859, but remained only two years, enlisting as a member of the band attached to the Second Michigan Cavalry in 1861; discharged in 1862 on account of sickness. He then commenced the study of medicine and attended courses of lectures during 1863-64 at the University of Michigan. In 1864 he re-entered the service as Assistant Surgeon of the Fourth Michigan Infantry, was commissioned Regimental Surgeon in January, 1866, and served in that capacity until honorably discharged in May, 1866; was Medical Inspector, during part of his service of the Department of San Antonio, Texas. He graduated at Rush Medical College, Chicago, in 1867. Dr. Griswold practiced medicine until 1873 at Taylor's Falls, Minn., since which time he has been a resident of Grand Rapids; was City Physician for the years 1876-77, and was elected Alderman of the Fourth ward in 1880. Member of Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine, Michigan State Medical Society, and American Medical Association, and honorary member of the Minnesota

State Medical Society. Has been a member of the Grand Rapids Board of U. S. Examining Surgeons for Pensions since 1873, except for the years 1874-75. He is now President of the Board. Was on the Pension Board in Minnesota before coming to Grand Rapids. Consulting Physician to St. Mark's and the U. B. A. Hospitals.

James Fulton Grove, M. D., one of the prominent physicians of Grand Rapids for nearly thirty years, was born in Geneva, Ontario county, New York, Dec. 11, 1828. Commenced the study of medicine at Geneva in 1852. He attended his first course of lectures at Geneva Medical College in 1852-53, his second course at Niagara University, Buffalo, N. Y., in 1853-54, and the third at Rush Medical College, Chicago, where he graduated Feb. 21, 1855. He settled in Grand Rapids in July, 1856, where he practiced until the time of his death, except for the interval while he was in the army service during the War of the Rebellion. He entered service as Assistant Surgeon Third Michigan Volunteer Infantry, Aug. 15, 1862; was commissioned Surgeon of that regiment Sept. 11, 1862, and was mustered out June 20, 1864. He died in Grand Rapids, of congestion of the brain, July 7, 1885.

William Frederick Hake, M. D., was born in Grand Rapids, Mich., July 29, 1861; graduated at Notre Dame University, South Bend, Ind., June, 1879, and took his degree in medicine at the University of Michigan in June, 1882. Has practiced since graduation at Grand Rapids. Is Surgeon and Major of the Second Regiment M. S. T.; member of Michigan State Medical Society, and charter member of Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine. Is Visiting Surgeon to the U. B. A. Hospital.

Arthur Hazlewood, M.D., was born near Birmingham, Warwickshire, England, Sept. 22, 1839; was apprenticed to a practitioner of medicine and surgery in London in 1856; came to America in 1860; entered the Medical Department of the Union Army in 1861 as Hospital Steward in the Fourth Illinois Cavalry, serving mostly as medical officer, to which rank he was promoted in 1863, and was mustered out of service in 1865. He graduated at St. Louis (Mo.) Medical College in 1866, afterward attending clinics in New York City; practiced in Memphis, Tenn., front 1866 to 1868; removed to Grand Rapids in December, 1868; was Secretary several times and President once (1880) of the Grand Rapids Medical Society; member of the American Medical Association since 1874; appointed member of the State Board of Health in 1875 for two years; reappointed again in 1881 for the term of six years and reappointed again in 1887 for another term of six years. Is member of the Michigan State Medical Society; Consulting Physician to St. Mark's Hospital, and Consulting Obstetrician to the U. B. A. Hospital.

Charles Everett Hebard, M. D., first saw the light at Dryden, Lapeer county, Mich., February 28, 1858. He Commenced the 3 study of medicine in 1875 with his father Dr. Ezra A. Hebard, now of Grand Rapids and entered the Medical Department of the University of Michigan in the fall of 1876, graduating therefrom March 26, 1879. While at Ann Arbor, after receiving his degree, be practiced one year at Lapeer, but removed to Grand Rapids at the end of that time, practicing his profession in this city until 1884. In 1881 he purchased a stock of drugs and chemicals on Canal street, and handled the store in connection with his business. During the summer of 1884 he left Grand Rapids and went to Kansas, where he practiced five years, returning to this city in July, 1889. He is at present practicing at this place, and is a member of the Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine.

Ezra Armstrong Hebard, M. D., was born in Leyden, Franklin county, Mass., March 2, 1830; commenced the study of medicine by in 1848, at Lapeer, Mich., his home at that so time. He attended the first course of medical lectures in Michigan University during the winter of 1850-51, and graduated at Berkshire Medical College, Mass., Nov. 26, 1851. Shortly after graduation he settled at Dryden, Lapeer county, Mich., remaining until 1858, when he removed to Winona, Minn., where he practiced until after the war. In 1866 he came to the vicinity of Grand Rapids, settling on a farm in Walker township, where he has lived ever since, with the exception of two years residence within the city. Served nine years as Supervisor of Walker township, and was a member of the Grand Rapids Board of U. S. Examining Surgeons during the administration of President Cleveland.

CHARLES RUTHFR HENDERSON, M. D., was born at Troy, N. Y., June 14, 1817. From there the family removed to Cleveland, Ohio, and he acquired a good education in the schools of that city, after which he entered the Medical Department of the Western Reserve College, and was graduated from that institution, March 4, 1846. He then spent a year or more at Sault Ste. Marie, and came to Grand Rapids in November, 1847. Here, by his amiable qualities and skill in his profession, he quickly won the genera1 esteem and many warm Dec. 23, 1849, he married Adelaide M. Winsor, one of the well-known pioneer family of that name. In 1850 he went to California, where he staid but about a year, then returned and made Grand Rapids his home during the rest of his life. In the practice of medicine he became popular and obtained a very flattering patronage. August, 26, 1861 he entered the army, as Surgeon of the Second Michigan Cavalry. Ardent, impulsive and sanguine in temperament this undertaking proved too much for his physical powers and in October, 1862, he resigned on account of ill health. His ailment became chronic, so that he was never after equal to the duties of a steady practice in his profession, and at length it resulted in hemiplegic paralysis, by which he was prostrated and confined to his house during the last three years of his life. His final sickness therefore was long, and of a distressing character, but was borne as Patiently as well could be by one so naturally impatient under any sort of restraint. As a citizen he was public spirited taking great interest in social and general affairs. Politically he was a stanch Democrat; in religious matters inclined to skepticism as to dogmas, but liberal in personal views. He died January 26, 1884, leaving his wife and one son, Charles F. Henderson, who yet survive; also an adopted daughter; Ella F. Henderson, now the wife of Charles Ward. He was a member of the Masonic Fraternity.

Orris Emmett Herrick, M. D., was born March 30, 1848, at Charleston, Montgomery county, N. Y. He graduated at the Albany (N. Y.) Medical College in 1871, and at Bellevue Hospital Medical College, N. Y., in 1873; took a post-graduate course in New York City in 1872; was Assistant Gynecologist to the Albany Hospital during a portion of 1872; Member of Michigan State Board of Health in 1875; Professor of Gynecology in the Cincinnati Medical College in 1878; Editor of the Obstetric Gazette from 1878 to 1882; is author of the book entitled, "Instrumental Interference in Uterine Displacements," and brochures on "Modification of Emmett's Operation," and "Some of the Plastic Operations in Female Surgery." Practice limited to Gynecology. Made and reported in the Obstetric Gazette the first operation for "Retention of Uterus in Procidentia and Flexions by Post Cervical Adhesions." Member of American Medical Association, Michigan State Medical Society, and Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine. President of the latter organization (1887-88). Consulting Gynecologist to St. Mark's and the U. B. A. Hospitals.

John Hamilcar Hollister, M. D., was born on a farm in Livingston County, N. Y., August 6, 1824. Graduated at the Berkshire Medical College, Pittsfield, Mass., in 1848, and immediately removed to the West for the practice of medicine in Montcalm Co., Mich. He remained there only one year, moving to Grand Rapids in June, 1849. Practiced in Grand Rapids six years, gaining a large business, and being an influential factor in local political circles. He went from Grand Rapids to Chicago in April, 1855, and has since resided there. With others, he was a prime factor in the incorporation of the Chicago Medical College, and has ever since been connected with that institution, chiefly as Professor of the Principles and Practice of Medicine and Pathology. Is a member of the Chicago Medical Society, Illinois State Medical Society, American Medical Association, and the International Medical Congress. Was appointed during 1889 Supervising Editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Has been Treasurer of the Illinois State Medical Society for the last twenty years.

Charles H. Holt, M. D., was born at Snow Shoe, Centre county, Pa., March 10, 1854; graduated at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, in 1882; and settled in Grand Rapids in the fall of 1882. Is a member of the Michigan State Medical Society and the Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine.

Joseph Barzella Hosken, M. D., was born in Coburg, Ontario, Canada, Nov. 21, 1850; studied medicine with Dr. Alonzo B. Palmer (lately deceased) of the Michigan State University; graduated from the Medical Department of the University March 24, 1875; practiced a year with Dr. W. H. DeCamp of this city; then went to New York City, taking a course of lectures in the Medical Department of the University of New York, and spending six months in Bellevue and Charity Hospitals; practiced six months in New York City, and returned to Grand Rapids in 1877. Was a member of the Grand Rapids Medical and Surgical Society when that organization was in existence.

Wilbur Fisk Hoyt, M. D., was born January 25, 1863, at Battle Creek., Mich..; took the degree of B. A. at Michigan Agricultural College, Lansing, in 1883, and the degree of M. D. at Starling Medical College, Columbus, Ohio, in 1885, and held the position of Resident Physician at St. Francis Hospital, Columbus, one year. He came to Grand Rapids in 1886. Member Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine. Visiting Obstetrician to the U. B. A. Hospital.

Henry Hulst, M. D., entered upon his earthly career in the Netherlands, June 25, 1859. Coming with his parents to this country when a lad, he entered Hope College Holland, Mich., in the fall Of 1879, taking the degree of Bachelor of Arts in the summer of 1883. During 1883 and 1884, he pursued studies in theology at Princeton, and received the degree of Master of Arts from Hope College in 1887. He took his degree as Doctor of Medicine at the Medical Department of Michigan University in 1888, and shortly afterward was appointed Assistant Physician at the Northern Michigan Asylum for the, Insane, at Traverse City, but resigned that position January 1, 1890, and removed to Grand Rapids, his old home, to enter upon the practice of general medicine. Member of the Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine. Visiting Obstetrician to the U. B. A. Hospital.

Cornelius Adrian Johnson, M. D., was born June 2, 1857, in Grand Rapids; graduated from the Medical Department of the University of Michigan June 27, 1889, and settled for practice in Grand Rapids in September 1889. Is a Member of the Grand Rapids Academy, of Medicine, has been House Physician at the U. B. A. Hospital, and has lately removed to Mancelona, Mich.

GEORGE KINNEY JOHNSON, M.D., was born in Cayuga county, New York, January 17, 1822. He moved to Michigan with his father in 1836, when 14 years of age, and settled on a new farm in the town ship of Brighton, Livingston county. There and in that vicinity he spent three or four years, helping his father to make a farm and a home. The country was new and almost without settlement. But the time so spent he remembers with pleasure, and regards that experience of pioneer life and of the incidents of early settlement as whole some. Of school advantages there were almost none, but he read with avidity such books as fell in his way. At eighteen he resolved to get an education, but the ways and means were difficult and scanty. There were no good schools in the vicinity. But at Ann Arbor, twenty-two miles away,, there was a very good, old-fashioned institution of learning, known as the McNiel Academy. This he attended two or three years, every month walking to and from his home. He was at that school when the corner-stone of Michigan University was laid, and well remembers the ceremonies of that occasion. During that time, as well as while pursuing professional studies afterward, he eked out his scanty means by teaching school when the exigency demanded. At the age of twenty-one he entered the office of the late Dr. Ira Bingham, at Brighton, and began the study of medicine. Dr. Bingham was a brusque and an eccentric old bachelor, but was a well instructed and successful practitioner. He took great pains with and interest in the young men whom he admitted to his office. In March, 1846, Dr. Johnson received his degree in medicine from the Cleveland Medical College (Medical Department of the Western Reserve University). In June following he established himself in Pontiac, this State, and began his professional work. Here fortune favored him and he soon found himself sufficiently occupied. In a few years his practice ranged over large portions of Oakland county; but at length his health broke under excessive labor. In 1852 or 1853 he removed to Detroit undertook light practice, but his health did not return and began to look as if it would not. In 1856, being unable to do the work of his profession, he came to this city in charge of the interests of the Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad, then in course of construction, and in which some of his friends were largely concerned. In 1857 he spent several months in England, partly in pursuit of health and partly in the interest of the road referred to above. In the spring of 1859 he was elected Mayor of Grand Rapids and served one term. He declined to be again a candidate. In the autumn of, 1860, having regained sufficient health, he resumed his profession. In 1861 the great war drew him into its vortex. He became Surgeon of the First Michigan Cavalry and went with that regiment to the field. He served with it during the exciting campaign of Gen. Banks in the Valley of the Shenandoah, in the early months of 1862. Later in the same season he served as Medical Director of a brigade of cavalry, commanded by Gen. John Buford, in the very stirring but unfortunate campaign of Gen. Pope. He was at Second Bull Run, and had the grief to see his friend Col. Brodhead, the commander of the First Cavalry, yield up his life. In February, 1863, Congress created a Corps of Medical Inspectors of the army, with increased rank. It consisted of eight Inspectors, four of whom were to be taken from the regular service and four from the volunteer service. Dr. Johnson was commissioned as one of the four from the volunteer service, and was at once assigned to duty with the Army of the Potomac. He was in this service during the campaigns of 1863. He was present at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, as well as at some minor affairs. From the end of 1863 to the first of October, 1865, he was Medical Inspector of the Middle Military Department. As such it was his duty, a responsible and laborious one, to inspect the field and general hospitals of that large department, extending from Philadelphia to New Berne, North Carolina. In November, 1865, after a military service of four years and four months, he returned to his home in this city, and at once resumed his practice. From that time to the present he has been in full and laborious practice. He has been an active member of the various medical societies of the city. Has long been and still is a member of the State Medical Society, and was President of that society in 1879. He has frequently contributed papers and addresses to the proceedings of that society. Is a member of the American Medical Association, also of the National Association of Railway Surgeons. Is Surgeon-in-Chief of three railroads the Grand Rapids and Indiana, the Chicago and West Michigan, and the Detroit, Lansing and Northern; and is Division Surgeon of the Detroit, Grand Haven and Milwaukee. By reason of his army service he holds membership in the Society of the Army of the Potomac and in the Order of the Loyal Legion of America. Dr. Johnson was appointed Pension Examining Surgeon for Grand Rapids shortly after the war, and was the only surgeon on that service in this city for several years, until the Grand Rapids Board was organized, after; which he served as President of the Board a number of years. Is Chief of Staff and Consulting Surgeon to St. Mark's Hospital and Consulting Physician to the U. B. A. Hospital.

Collins Hickey Johnston, M. D., was born at Detroit. Mich., August 29, 1859; graduated from the Literary Department of the University of Michigan in June, 188x, and from the Medical Department in June, 1883. Was Assistant House Surgeon, Harper Hospital, Detroit, during the summer of 1883Practiced at Sutton's Bay, Leelanaw Co., Mich., from 1883 to 1886, being Health Officer of the township for two years. Took a post course in N. Y. Polyclinic in winter of 1886-87, also in the Northwestern Dispensary, New York. Settled at Grand Rapids in August, 1887. Member of Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine, and Vice President of same for 1890. Visiting Physician to St. Mark's and the U. B. A. Hospitals.

Henry Dwight Kendall, M. D., was born in Greenfield, Mass., May 1, 1815. After taking a partial course in arts, he commenced the study of medicine, graduating from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the Western District of New York, at Fairfield, N. Y., in 1838. He was Demonstrator of Anatomy in his alma mater for a year prior and a year subsequent to graduation. Practiced five years (1839-44) in Cleveland, Ohio; then five years (1844-49) in Norwich, Chenango county, N. Y. In 1849 he was called upon by his father's death to close up the estate, and has not since practiced medicine. He was engaged in mercantile life until about 1879, at which time he removed to, Grand Rapids. The Doctor retains a fervent interest in matters pertaining to his profession, is an enthusiastic microscopist, and a member of the American Microscopical Society. He is also a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Reynold Jerome Kirkland, M. D., was born January 18, 1856, at Grand Rapids, Mich.; graduated from Medical Department of the University of Michigan in March, 1879; practiced first at Reed City, and then at Hersey, Mich., two years (1879-8l). He then spent a year (fall of 1881 and spring and summer of 1882) at the New York Ophthalmic and Aural Institute, under the personal instruction of the celebrated Dr. H. Knapp, becoming Assistant in the Institute. Later he was-appointed oculist and aurist to the Eastern Dispensary, Grand street, New York city. He returned to Grand Rapids in September, 1882, limiting his practice to diseases of the eye, ear, throat and nose. Has been Division Surgeon for the M. C. R. R. since 1886. Member of Michigan State Medical Society, and Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine; was President of the latter organization during 1888. Secretary of Grand Rapids Board of U. S. Examining Surgeons for Pensions (1889). Ophthalmic and Aural Surgeon to St. Mark's and the U. B. A. Hospitals.

Daniel A. Laubenstein, M. D., was born in Bota, Hungary, Sept. 15, 1816. Graduated in arts in Vienna, Austria, in 1834, and in medicine in 1845. Served in the Austro-Italian war until 1848, when he resigned. Came to the United States in 1849. Practiced two years at Trenton, N. J., and ten years (1851-61) at Springfield, Mo.; was in the war until 1863; practiced in Kalamazoo, Mich., from 1863 to 1867, then moved to Grand Rapids, where he has since resided. Was City Physician in 1874, and elected Coroner in 1880. Removed to Milwaukee in the fall of 1889.

Henry Eugeane Locher M D was born in Freiburg, Baden, Germany, March 29, 1850. Parents came to America and settled in Norwalk, Ohio, a year and a half later. Studied medicine two years at Saranac, Mich. Took one course of lectures at the Detroit Medical College (1875-76), and graduated at the Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y., in the spring of 1877. Practiced in Ada Kent county Michigan, until 1880, when he removed to Grand Rapids. Was elected member of the Board of Education in 1888, which position he still holds; also elected one of the Kent county Coroners in November, 1888, for the term of two years. With his sister he is engaged in the drug business on Ellsworth avenue. Member of Grand Rap ids Academy of Medicine, and also of Grand Rapids Pharmaceutical Society.

Hugo Lupinski, M. D., was born January 15, 1858, at Sheboygan, Wis.; graduated from the Department of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, in 1880, taking the degree of Ph. C., and from the Medical Department in 1882, receiving the degree of M. D. Was Assistant Demonstrator of Anatomy in the University from 1882 to 1887. Came to Grand Rapids as Health Officer May 17, 1887; held the position until 1889. Member of Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine. Pathologist and Microscopist to St. Mark's Hospital, and Visiting Physician to the U. B. A. Hospital.

Charles Hiram Maxim, M. D., was born in Palmyra, Maine, August 30, 1837. Graduated at Bowdoin College in March, 1868. After practicing in Dexter, Maine, three years, he came to Grand Rapids in September, 1871. Was Coroner of Kent county in 1878; member of the Board of Health in 1880-81, and City Physician in 1884. Helped to establish the Grand Rapids Humane Society. Member of the Michigan State Medical Society, and Grand Rapids Medical and Surgical Society. Died of heart disease March 11, 1887.

John Alexander McColl, M. D., was born in Fingal, Ont., Canada, May 6, 1858; graduated in medicine from the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York city, March 15, 1886, and settled in Grand Rapids August 1, 1886. Member of Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine.

James A. McPherson, M. D., was born, in Canada, March 26, 1849. Attended a course of medical lectures (1869-70) at the University f Michigan. Served a year and a half in the drug store of E. B., Escott, Grand Rapids, and graduated at the Detroit Medical College in the in the Spring of 1872. He soon settled at Grand Rapids, where a co-partnership was formed with the late James F. Grove, which lasted one year, since which time he has practiced alone. Is a member of State Medical Society, and of Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine. Visiting Physician to the U. B. A.

David McWhorter, M. D., was born in on the town of Pitcher Chenango county N. Y., December 21, 794, and graduated at the Albany Medical College, Albany, N. Y., in the spring of 1816. He practiced in Pitcher and Albany until 1849, removing in that year to Grass Lake, Mich., where he practiced seventeen years, until he came to Grand Rapids in 1866. The Doctor retired from active practice shortly after coming to this city, but retained his interest in medical matters. He was in active Practice fifty years (1816-1866). Dr. McWhorter was Prominent as a public man, both in New York State and in Michigan, having represented his New York State district in Congress in 1847, and his district in the Michigan Legislature in 1853. He died September 2, 1877.

Gaylord Brown Miller, M. D., was born in Torrington, Litchfield county, Conn., July 25,1831; graduated at the Berkshire Medical College, Pittsfield, Mass., in 1852, and practiced in Litchfield county, Conn., from 1852 to 1863, at which time he removed to Grand Rapids, where he now resides. The Doctor was appointed Acting Assistant Surgeon U. S. A. in January, 1864, and served in that capacity until July of the same year, stationed at Jackson Mich., and Resaca, Ga. Member of the Massachusetts State Medical Association (1852); member of Connecticut State Medical Society (1853); Litchfield City Medical Society (1853); American Medical Association (1860); Michigan State Medical Society, and President of Grand Rapids Medical and Surgical Society in 1876.

Roland Elwell Miller, M. D., was born at Lockport, N. Y., June 17, 1859; graduated at the University of New York, New York city, March, 1886, practiced in Buffalo, N. Y., two years (1886-88); and settled in Grand Rapids in October, 1888. Member of Erie County Medical Society and the Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine.

Walter Bacon Morrison, M. D., was born in Grand Rapids, May 6, 1838, and graduated at the Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y., June, 1865. Dr. Morrison served during the war in the volunteer service, being at first Hospital Steward and later Assistant Surgeon. He settled at Muskegon in July, 1865, practicing there until 1879, when he removed to Grand Rapids, remaining in this city until 1884. In this year he went to Honduras, Central America, and practiced three years in that country. In 1887 he returned to Muskegon, where he still resides. Was City Physician of Grand Rapids from May, 1881, to May, 1882, and Coroner of Kent county for the years 1883-84.

James Mulhern, M. D., was born in Belfast, Ireland, in 1846; came to the United States at an early age; took two courses of medical lectures in the University of Michigan (1867-68); graduated at the Detroit College of Medicine in 1870; practiced at Greenville, Mich., thirteen years; and has been twice elected President of the Union Medical Society of Western Michigan. Came to Grand Rapids in 1883.

Albert J. Patterson, M. D., was born in Paris, Kent county, Mich., Feb. 18, 1859. He graduated in medicine at the Detroit Medical College with the class Of 1883. For one year he practiced at Kent City, during the second year at Sparta, and for the four following years at Cannonsburg, Kent county, where he served as Health Officer. In January, 1889, he removed to Grand Rapids, where lie now resides. He is a member of the Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine.

William Francis Penwarden, M. D., was born in Fingal, Elgin county, Canada, Jan. 7, 1860. Graduated at the St. Thomas (Canada) Collegiate Institute in 1877, and at Williams & Rodgers International Business College, Rochester, N. Y., in 1878. Took one course in medicine at the University of Michigan, and two courses at Bellevue Medical College, New York city, graduating from, the latter, March 14, 1883. Practiced one year at Castlewood, Hainlin county, Dakota, and came to Grand Rapids September 28, 1884. Is the present County Physician of Kent county.

Reuben Peterson, M. D., is of New England stock, born in Boston, Mass., June 29, 1862. His preparatory education was rounded off at the famous Boston Latin School, and from this institution he entered the Literary Department of Harvard College in the fall of 1881. Graduating in arts at Harvard in the summer of 1885, he took up the study of medicine, matriculating in the Medical Department of Harvard during the fall of the same year. He pursued his professional studies in this department three years, completing the course in 1888, and received his degree a year later. His hospital experience is as follows: Eight months in 1887 and 1888, House Surgeon at the Free Hospital for Women, Boston; one year (July, 1888, to July, 1889), Medical House Officer at the Boston City Hospital; during the summer of 1889, Assistant House Officer at Bellevue Hospital, New York city, and from Nov. 1, 1889, to March 1, 1890, House Physician at the Boston Lying in Hospital. He came to Grand Rapids for the practice of his profession in March, 1890. Is a member of the Massachusetts State Medical Society, and the Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine. Acting Superintendent and Resident Physician at, and Visiting Gynecologist to St. Mark's Hospital.

ALONZO PLATT, M. D., an old-time resident of Grand Rapids, and for years one of the leading physicians of the city, was born January 10, 1806, in Stephentown, Rensselaer county, N. Y., being a son of judge Henry Platt of that place. He was a descendant, through his mother (Susan De La Vergne), of the French Huguenots. After preparatory studies at Lenox, Berkshire county, Mass., he was compelled, on account of trouble with his eyes, to give up his cherished hope of taking a four years collegiate course in Arts; but in 1825, his eyesight becoming strong again, he commenced the study of medicine with Dr. Wright, of New Lebanon, N. Y., also receiving instructions, later on, at the hands of Dr. John De La Mar, of Sheffield, Mass. He was graduated in medicine, after full courses of lectures, by the Berkshire Medical College (Mass.) in December, 1829, and practiced for two years at Port Gibson, Ontario county, N. Y., removing in the spring of 1832 to Ann Arbor, Mich. In the fall of this year he married Miss Laurelia, daughter of Stoddard Smith, an eminent lawyer of Greene county, N. Y. After practicing his -profession in Ann Arbor for ten years he came to Grand Rapids (1842). During the war Dr. Platt was Surgeon of the Enrolling Board for this Congressional District, and was prominently connected for years with the Grand Rapids Medical and Surgical Society, also with the State Society. He took am-active part in establishing St. Mark's Home and Hospital, and was for several years physician in charge of this institution. He was very, charitable, and at one time kept a free dispensary at his residence. For several years prior to his demise he had been in failing health, being obliged to relinquish his practice to a great extent, and finally succumbed to the encroachments of disease, November 18, 1882, after having practiced medicine in this city for forty year. Dr. Platt's monument is his life and labor, particularly in this locality, where he was venerated by scores of people, young and old alike, and where his death was looked upon as a public calamity. A daughter, Mrs. Don M. Dickinson, survives and resides at Detroit, Mich.

Austin J. Pressey, M. D., was born on a farm in Cayuga county, N. Y., September 9, 1845. After receiving a common school education he took an academic course at Movaria, Cayuga county. He graduated at the Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery in June, 1876. Practiced at Bowne Center, Kent county, Mich., from 1877 until 1881, and at Freeport, Barry county, Mich., from 1881 until 1886, when he came to Grand Rapids. Member of the Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine.

Benjamin Pyle, M. D., was born Sept. 27, 1859, at Kalamazoo, Mich.; graduated at Ann Arbor (Medical Department University of Michigan) in June, 1883; received the degree of M. A. from Hope College, Holland, Mich., in May, 1885, and settled in Grand Rapids July 16, 1883. Member of Michigan State Medical Society and of Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine.

Frances Armstrong Rutherford, M. D., was born October 8, 1842, at Thurston, Steuben county, N. Y., of English parents. Entered Elmira Female College of New York in 1856, but was obliged to leave the following year on account of ill health. Spent a portion of the following years until 1862 in teaching, when she began the study of medicine with Rachael Gleason, M. D., Resident Physician of Elmira Water Cure and graduate of Syracuse University. Began attending lectures at the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1865, and graduated from that college in 1868 (spending meanwhile one year in the New York Infirmary for Women and Children as Junior Assistant, and having special courses of study in diseases of the heart and lungs, and also in operative surgery, in dermatology and microscopy; this being the first class of, female physicians that ever received such instructions in operative surgery). In May, 1868, she began the practice of medicine in Grand Rapids. She was elected by the Common Council City Physician in 1870, being the first woman to hold that office, either in this or any other city in the United States. Was elected member of the Michigan State Medical Society in 1872 being, with Sibelia F. Baker of Coldwater and Ruth A. Gerry, M. D., of Ypsilanti, the first women so honored. Afterward she became a member of the Grand Rapids Medical and Surgical Society and the Northwestern Medical Society, and was elected Vice President of the State Medical Society in 1873. She spent the winter of 1873 in New York City, giving special attention to gynecology, at the Woman's Hospital. In 1878 she was sent as delegate from the Grand Rapids Medical and Surgical Society to the American Medical Association at Chicago, and was the first woman so sent and elected as a regular delegate by that society. The winter of 1882-83 she spent in visiting hospitals and clinics in Berlin and London, where every courtesy was shown by the physicians in charge. She has long held the position of member of Board of Censors of the Alumnae of the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania. She has, from the start, enjoyed a large and remunerative practice, and was the first woman graduate of a regular medical college to settle in this city. Is visiting Gynecologist to the U. B. A. Hospital.

Henry G. Saunders, M. D., was born in Petersburg, Rensselaer county, N. Y., June 15, 1819. Attended medical lectures in Geneva, N. Y., and at the Medical Department of the University of the City of New York, graduating therefrom in the spring of 1847. Took post courses in New York and Philadelphia; commenced practice in Adams, Jefferson county, N. Y.; after a year and a half removed to Ellisburg, and remained in practice there eleven years; came to Grand Rapids at close of 1858; is still living in the city, and is the present Health Officer.

Roelof A. Schotiten, M. D., was born at Nunspest, Netherlands, Dec. 5,1835; graduated at the Medical School of Haarlem, Netherlands, June 29, 1865; served as Surgeon of a Dutch merchant vessel on two voyages to the East Indies, between 1865 and 1869; settled in Holland, Mich., in 1869, remaining until 1882; was City Physician of Holland four years and Health Officer three years, and settled in Grand Rapids in 1882.

Perry Schurtz, M. D., was born in Constantine, Mich., April i9, 1855, graduated at the Medical Department of the University of Michigan in March, 1876; settled in Grand Rapids immediately, and still practices in the city. Member of the Michigan State Medical Society, Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine, and American Medical Association. Visiting Surgeon to St. Mark's and the U. B. A. Hospitals.

Charles Shepard, M. D., the oldest surviving representative of the pioneer practitioners of Grand Rapids, was born July 18, 181-2, in Fairfield, Herkimer county, N.Y. He began the study of medicine at the age of 18, reading in the office of Dr. H. W. Doolittle, Herkimer county, and graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the Western District of New York, Fairfield, in 1835. After practicing six months in Jefferson county, N. Y., he removed to Grand Rapids, then a small village, arriving Oct. 20, 1835, being the second physician to settle within the limits of, the present city, Dr. Stephen A. Wilson, the first physician, having been upon the ground in August of that year. Between these two physicians a co-partnership was formed, lasting some eighteen months, until the spring of 1839. Dr. Shepard has practiced fifty-four years in Grand Rapids, and is still devoting himself to important surgical work and consultations. As a surgeon he takes high rank. He has been President of the Grand Rapids Medical and Surgical Society four times (in the period from 1858 to 1881); is a member of the Michigan State Medical Society, of which he was the President in 1886; member of the International Medical Congress since the meeting in Philadelphia in 1876; member of the American Microscopical Society, American Association for the advancement of Science, and the American Medical Association. He served as Alderman in the Common Council of 1853 and 1854, and was elected Mayor of the city in 1855. Is Chief of Staff at the U. B. A. Hospital, and Consulting Gynecologist to St. Mark's Hospital.

Ralph Henry Spencer, M. D., was born at Tysingham, Berkshire county, Mass., Feb. 18, 1854. Graduated at the Medical Department of the University of New York, Feb. 1879. Practiced at Portland, Mich., from 1879 to 1884, and at Pewamo from 1884 to 1889. Was elected President of Pewamo Village in 1886. Settled in Grand Rapids in 1889. Visiting Obstetrician to the U. B. A. Hospital.

Ransom Humphrey Stevens, M. D., was born in Montpelier, Vt., Jan. 18, 1853, in the same house where his father, John P. Stevens, was born. The family moved to Wisconsin in 1860, and came to Michigan in 1870, settling near the city of Grand Rapids, where the parents died in 1887. He was graduated from the Literary Department of the University of Michigan in 1877, and from the Medical Department in 1878. Began practice in Grand Rapids Nov. 1, 1879, and has practiced here (with the exception of one year in Detroit) ever since. Was House Surgeon to St. Mark's Home and Hospital six years (1880-86); since then has been Assistant Surgeon to the Michigan Soldiers' Home, near Grand Rapids. Is a member of the Michigan State Medical Society, May 19, 1880, he married Lucretia Seymour, of Grand Rapids.

Edwin Butler Strong, M. D., was born at Reading, Mich., July 6, 1863. He was graduated at the Detroit College of Medicine in March, 1887, and immediately entered practice at Byron Center, Kent county, Mich. He came to Grand Rapids January 8, 1890. Is a member of the Michigan State Medical Society, Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine, and the Grand River Valley Medical Association. Home Surgeon at the U. B. A. Hospital.

Archibald Blythe Thompson, M. D., was born Feb. 21, 1865, in Blythe, Ontario, Canada. Is a licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, Edinburgh, and of the faculty of Physicians and Surgeons, Glasgow, Scotland, having been graduated from both institutions in May, 1887, taking a medical degree from each at the same time. Has had hospital experience in London, England, and Edinburgh, Scotland. Member of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Ontario, Canada. Settled in Grand Rapids in November, 1887

Emma Nichols-Wanty, M. D., was born in Cannon, Kent county, Mich., July 28, 1851, and was graduated at the Woman's Medical College, Chicago, March 2, 1880. The Doctor remained in Chicago after graduation, and was House Surgeon of the Woman's Hospital for one year; was appointed assistant to the chair of Physiology and Lecturer on Histology in the Woman's Medical College, which position she held four years. Was a member of the Chicago Medical Society and the Illinois State Medical Society. Married June 22, 1886) to George P. Wanty, a member of the Grand Rapids bar, and settled in this city for practice in September of the same year. Visiting Gynecologist to St Mark's and the U. B. A. Hospitals.

Edward Watson, M. D., was born in Fingal, Elgin county, Canada, Nov. 27, 1840, He entered the Literary Department of the University of Michigan in the fall of 1860, but went into the army in 1861 and never finished his course. Shortly after the war he commenced the study of medicine in New York city; afterward spent some time in England and France, and resided five years (1866-71) in Rome. In 1871 he to returned to America, and resuming his medical studies graduated at the University of Michigan in the spring of 1873. He has practiced his profession in Plymouth, Mich., Sioux Falls, Dakota; and in Grand Rapids, until lately, since 1884. Owing to ill-health he has been compelled to relinquish practice for the past year (1889). He is a member of the Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine, and was, during his residence in Plymouth, Secretary of a medical society embracing Wayne, Washtenaw and Oakland counties. Dr. Watson is a brother of the late James C. Watson, the distinguished astronomer. Was Health Officer of Grand Rapids 1888-89.

David Emmett Welsh, M. D., was born in Columbia, Lancaster county, Pa., January 22, 1858. Graduated at the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa., March 12, 1878, and settled in Latrope [Latrobe? Indistinguishable jmt], Pa., where he practiced from April, 1878, to August, 1884. He settled in Grand Rapids July 6, 1885, limiting his practice to diseases of the eye, ear, throat and nose. Dr. Welsh is a member of the Grand Rapids Board of Health, appointed in 1889. He is also Eye and Ear Expert Pension Examiner. Member of the American Medical Association, Michigan State Medical Society, and Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine. Is Ophthalmic and Aural Surgeon to St. Mark's and the U. B. A. Hospitals.

William Halleck White, M. D., was barn at Mendon Centre, N. Y., August 21, 1860. Graduated from the Department of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, taking the degree of Ph. C., in 1882, and from the Department of Medicine and Surgery with the degree of M. D. in 1884. Came to Grand Rapids in August, 1884. Is a member of the Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine.

George Henry Wildberger, M. D., was born April 6, 1840, in the city of Bamburg, Bavaria, and was graduated in medicine at the University of Wurzburg May 24, 1865. He settled for practice, shortly after his graduation, at Kissingen, Bavaria; afterward entered into practice at Bamburg, his native place, and in addition to his practice in the city was Director of an orthopedic institution which had been established by his father, who preceded him in the Directorship. He was a surgeon in the German Army during the Franco-German war (1870-71). The Doctor had an extended experience in the hospitals of Berlin, Munch and Prague. He came to Grand Rapids October 7, 1875, and soon gained a large practice, principally among those of German descent. He bad the misfortune to contract diphtheria from a patient, and died of paralysis of the heart, as a result of the systemic infection, February 23, 1883.

William A. Wilson, M. D., was born in Phelps, Ontario county, N. Y., February 21, 1846. Graduated at the Albany Medical College, Albany, N. Y., with the class of 1868. Practiced fifteen years in Yates and Steuben counties, N. Y. Settled in Grand Rapids in 1884. Member of Grand Rapids Board of Health in 1886, and is the present secretary of the same. Was a member of Yates County (N. Y.) Medical Society.

Stephen A. Wilson, M. D., the first physician to settle within the limits of Grand Rapids, was born in Herkimer county, N. Y., in 181o. He graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the Western District of New York, Fairfield, N. Y., and after practicing in his native town for a short time, removed to Grand Rapids in August, 1835. He and Dr. Charles Shepard were partners from the spring of 1837 until the fall of 1839, when the partnership was dissolved by Dr. Wilson's death. He died after a relapse of typhoid fever.

William Wood, M. D., was born on a farm on Talbot street, near St. Thomas, Elgin county, Ontario, Canada, August 17, 1838. He remained with his parents on the farm during his youth, receiving a fair common school education. In 1856, when eighteen years old, he entered the Grammar School at St. Thomas, a school in that country intermediate between the high schools and the University of Toronto. From 1856 to 1860 Mr. Wood's time was occupied between teaching school in his native county and attendance on the Grammar School, which may be said to have mainly completed his preliminary education. October 1, 1860, he entered the Medical and Chemical Department of the University of Michigan, where he remained two years, graduating in medicine and surgery in the spring of 1862, and received his diploma in the department of applied chemistry in June of the same year. He then commenced practice as a physician in the village of Sparta in his native county, and remained there until he removed to the city of Grand Rapids, arriving June 4, 1864. Since that time he has been actively engaged in the practice of his profession in this city. He was President of the Grand Rapids Medical and Surgical Society in 1875, and was one of the charter members of the Michigan State Medical Society in 1866.

Christopher James Woolway, M. D., was born in London, Canada, Oct. 28, 1854, and graduated at McGill University, Montreal, with the class of 1875. He settled at Grand Rapids in May, 1875, and remained in the city until June, 1879, when he was appointed Surgeon of the Copper Falls Copper Mine, Keweenaw county, Mich. He remained in the mines until Sept. 1, 1885, then removing to St. Paul, Minn., where he still resides. Has been Recording Secretary of the Grand Rapids Medical and Surgical Society, and is a member of the Ramsay County (Minn.) Medical Society, and the Minnesota State Medical Society.

Samuel Russell Wooster, M. D., was born in Oxford, New Haven county, Conn., April 22, 183o, and was graduated at the Yale Medical College, New Haven, in January, 1857. He settled in Grand Rapids early in the same year, and practiced here until the breaking out of the war in 1861, when he entered the United States service as Assistant Surgeon of the Eighth Michigan Volunteer Infantry. He remained with that regiment until February, 1863, when he was commissioned Surgeon of the First Michigan Cavalry, remaining with this regiment until October, 1864, but was acting Brigade Surgeon most of the time and on duty at Gen. Custer's headquarters. Was mustered out of the service in the fall of 1864, and appointed Acting Staff Surgeon, his commission being signed by Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War. During this period he was engaged in field and hospital practice. After discharge from service in June, 1865, he settled at Muskegon, Mich., in July, 1865, where he practiced until 1871; then returned to Grand Rapids, where he has resided ever since. He was Examining Surgeon for Pensions in Muskegon from 1865 to 1871; member of Board of Examining Surgeons for Pensions in Grand Rap ids from 1871 to 1887, and President of the Board from 1877 to 1887; County Physician of Kent County from 1872 to 1889; City Physician and Health Officer of Grand Rap ids in 1880. Member of Michigan State Medical Society and the Grand Rapids Academy of Medicine. Visiting Surgeon to St. Mark's Hospital and Consulting Surgeon to the U. B. A. Hospital.

Frederick Welling Wright, M. D., was born in Jackson, Mich., March 20, 1859; graduated at Detroit Medical College, Feb. 29, 1884, and settled in Grand Rapids July 14, 1884. City Physician at the present time.

MEMBERS OF THE ECLECTIC SCHOOL.

Avery E. Alden, M. D., was born at Hastings, Mich., in 1849; graduated at Cincinnati Eclectic Institute in 1879; practiced ten years in Coral and Howard City, Montcalm county, and came to Grand Rapids October 1, 1889.

George Morton Bradish, M. D., was born in Grand Rapids township 2, 1854; graduated at the Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, June 3, 1879, and settled for practice at Grand Rapids in the fall of 1879. Was Coroner of Kent county from 1883 to 1889. Member of the Michigan State Eclectic Society.

Horatio S. Holden, M. D., was born July 6, 1847, at Reading, N. Y.; graduated at Bennett Medical College in 187i, and practiced at Pierson from 1871 to 1875. He settled at Grand Rapids in 1875, remaining until 1888. During this time he was City Physician several terms, and served a term as Coroner of Kent county (1879-80). In 1888 he moved his residence to Rockford, Mich.

Warren Leroy Marks, M. D., was born December 13,1849, at Grand Rapids, Wood county, Ohio; graduated from the Eclectic Medical College of Cincinnati May 15, 1877; practiced five years in Calumet county, Wisconsin, one year at Milton Center, Ohio, and at Fisher Station, Mich., five years. Came to Grand Rapids in 1888. Is Health Officer of Paris township.

James D. Peters, M. D., was born in Johnstown, Licking county, Ohio, November 19, 1835; graduated in February, 1868, at the Cincinnati Eclectic Institute; practiced in Plainwell until 1872, in Grand Rapids from 1872 to 1880, Plainwell from 1880 to 1885, and in Grand Rapids since. Member of State Eclectic Society; was President of the same for 1882-83

Philander Bracken Wright, M. D., was born at Milwaukee, Wis., June 7, 1841; graduated at the Eclectic College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Feb. 11, 1868; practiced in Corinth, Kent county, Mich., until 1887, when he moved into Grand Rapids. Vice President Michigan State Eclectic Society.

MEMBERS OF THE PHYSIO-MEDICAL SCHOOL

Elisha Moses Dunham, M. D., was born January 13, 1848, near Lebanon, Warren county, Ohio. Graduated Feb. 18, 1870 at the Physio-Medical College, Cincinnati. Came to Grand Rapids in 1883, prior to which time he had practiced in the towns of Waynesville, Attica and Ashland, Ohio. Member of the Michigan State Physio-Medical Society.

Albertus Nyland, M. D., was born in Holland, Mich., March 15, 1855, and graduated from the Physio-Medical College at Indianapolis, Ind., in March, 1886. He settled in Grand Rapids May 1, 1886.

Melle Veenboer, M. D., was born in Donkerbroek, Netherlands, Dec. 23, 1850; was graduated at the Physio-Medical College, Indianapolis, in February, 1877; received the degree of Master of Arts (honorary) from Hope College, Holland, Mich , in 1878, and settled at Grand Rapids in 1877, remaining to the present time. Lecturer on Hygiene and Sanitary Science in the. Physio-Medical College, Indianapolis, since 1881. Member of the Michigan State and National Physio-Medical Societies.

The Directory for 1890 gives a list of 153 physicians in Grand Rapids, to attend to the ailments of about 70,000 people in the city and its vicinity.

HOMEOPATHY ITS ORIGIN AND NATURE

PART II. HOMEPATHY
BY SAMUEL G. MILNER, M.D.

BEFORE writing the history of Homeopathy in Grand Rapids, it may be well to state briefly the origin and nature of that system of therapeutics. Dr. Samuel Hahnernann, a native of Germany, educated at the universities of Leipsig and Erlangen, acknowledged as an able-investigator of medical science, becoming deeply impressed with the fallacies and inconsistencies in the methods of practice in his time, and being convinced that great improvement could be made, commenced testing the action of the medicinal agents then used, making exact record of all the effects, when the drugs were administered to cure disease as well as of the symptoms produced when the agents were given in large quantities to healthy persons. While pursuing these investigations, and he himself was under the influence of a certain drug taken in large doses, he was startled to observe that there were present manifest symptoms of a disease which the drug was uniformly used to cure. From this illustration that a remedy which would cure a certain disease would also produce like symptoms when administered to a healthy person, he reasoned that the converse would be equally true, viz.: that a drug which produced certain symptoms of disease in a healthy organism would cure a diseased person in whom were manifest like symptoms. Communicating his discoveries to some of his medical friends, he enlisted their aid in making further tests or provings. The result of their united labors was the verification of his former conclusions, and the enunciation to the scientific world of the new law in therapeutics: "Similia Similibus Curantur." In making these investigations, both he and his friends ascertained another important fact, viz.: that in the administration of remedies to the sick, of sufficient strength to produce drug effects, they generally obtained an aggravation of the symptoms, and thus it was found that curative results were obtained from smaller (not necessarily infinitesimal) doses. Neither Hahnemann nor his wisest followers have claimed that this system was fully adapted to, or capable of application in, the relief of all conditions of suffering or disease. Homeopathists, without disregarding other valuable methods of treatment in their proper place, simply claim that in those morbid conditions which are capable of being cured by medicinal agents, the Homeopathic method of prescribing, because founded upon a scientific law, is vastly superior to the old or empirical practice. Like other methods of therapeutics, Homeopathy is limited in its sphere of application, its use being wholly dependent upon the judgment and wisdom of the prescriber. He must decide whether it shall be used independently or instead of other methods of treatment, such as hygienic, mechanical, palliative, surgical, and hydropathic, or whether it shall be used as collateral with them.

Homeopathy, in brief, means that no remedy should be given to the sick that has not been carefully proven upon persons in health; that the true guide in the selection of a remedy is the similarity of drug symptoms obtained in a condition of health to the symptoms found in condition of disease; that it is more scientific to prescribe as nearly as possible the single remedy whose pathogenesy will come the nearest to covering the symptoms of the case, and that the curative action of a remedy requires it to be given in quantities smaller than would be sufficient to produce manifest drug symptoms. Although not without interest, there is little worthy of record in the early history of Homeopathy in this city. The appended biographies show that Dr. John Ellis, from 1843 to 1845, was the first physician in Grand Rapids to practice Homeopathy. He was followed by Dr. A. H. Botsford in 1851, Dr. E. R. Ellis in 1858 and Dr. Charles J. Hempel in 1861. These early pioneers here of the new system of therapeutics, aside from their professional theories and practice, were withal in character and reputation so well fitted to disarm prejudice and attract popular favor that, as far as we can learn now, they met with little of the bitter opposition usually exhibited in other places from the so-called regular school of physicians. Occasionally, of course, professional courtesies were denied, but the instances were rare. Dr. Hempel particularly was on such friendly terms with sonic of the old school physicians that the latter incurred the displeasure of their colleagues, and were charged with heresy.

There was no organization of the Homeopathic physicians of the city till after 1870, when through the influence of Dr. Hempel the Grand Rapids Homeopathic Medical Society was formed. It consisted of eleven members, a few of whom lived in neighboring towns. The society was so small and Dr. Hempel, its permanent president, was so feeble in health, that the meetings were rare and irregularly attended, and they were finally suspended. In 1878 the number of Homeopathic physicians in the city and surrounding towns had increased to such an extent that the society was revived under the name of the Grand River Valley Homeopathic Medical Society, but it existed only a few years, when its death by marasmus took place.

No further association of the Homeopathic physicians was attempted till May, 1890, when an association was formed called The College of Homeopathic Physicians and Surgeons of Grand Rapids, and consisting of sixteen members.

It remains to speak of the relations of the Homeopathic physicians to the hospitals of the city. From the time of the establishment of the St. Mark's Hospital and Home and the U. B. A. Home till April, 1890, all reputable physicians without regard to school of medicine were permitted, by the Boards of Trustees, equal privileges of practice in those institutions. At the time above referred to, however, the Trustees of St. Mark's Hospital appointed a full staff of Allopathic physicians, to whose exclusive care were assigned all patients who should come to the hospital for treatment. The Homeopathic physicians and patrons late in the year 1889, and before the new hospital building was completed, anticipating the possibility of such action, asked for a definite understanding as to what the policy of the institution was to be, in order to know what encouragement and material assistance they should give to the hospital. Accordingly a conference with the Trustees was held, at which the Homeopathic physicians were assured that, as in the past so in the future, it would be the policy of the Managing Board to have the hospital, as far as possible, free; it would be open to all physicians regardless of sect, party or pathy; that the appointment of an exclusive staff was not contemplated; and that while they would appoint a resident physician who would be a "Regular," yet he would never interfere with the free use of the hospital for the patients of Homeopathic or any other class of physicians. The action taken by the Trustees, therefore, in the appointment of an exclusive staff, was a great surprise. The facts being made known, so strong was the public feeling of indignation that, at a subsequent meeting of the trustees, a resolution was passed allowing the Homeopathic physicians to bring their patients to the hospital and to treat them subject to the rules of the institution. The Homeopathic physicians, desiring to acquaint themselves with the conditions that should govern them, requested a copy of the rules, but could not secure one. The Homeopathic society then attempted to gain a knowledge of the rules by conference with the Trustees, but the latter showed no disposition to give the information desired, and instead, sought to induce the Homeopaths to give up the privileges promised to them, asserting that they (the Homeopaths) would be greatly embarrassed by the bitter opposition of the staff previously appointed. The Homeopathic society, however, relying upon a solemn compact of the Trustees to fulfill in spirit and letter their original promises, decided to hold them to their pledge and accepted the grant of being allowed to take their patients to the hospital, and to treat them. But the Board of Trustees immediately called a meeting and rescinded the grant.

The movement to appoint an exclusive staff of Allopathic physicians for St. Mark's Hospital was followed by similar action on the part of the Trustees of the U. B. A. Home, with this difference-that permission was given to any physician to bring his patients to the institution and treat them there, all other classes of patients being compelled to accept the treatment of the appointed staff.

No other reasons were assigned for thus ignoring the Homeopathic or other schools of medicine except that as it seemed advisable to appoint a staff or staffs to whom should be assigned the clinical work of the Hospital, and as many of the so-called regular physicians refused to serve, if associated with staffs from other schools, the Board's decided to make a selection from the "Regular" school alone. Many of the oldest and best friends of both institutions, as well as the daily press of the city, expressed freely their dissatisfaction at the action of the Boards of Trustees, but future history must relate the outcome of the controversy.

BIOGRAPHIC. Phoebe A. French Alley, M. D., was born at Ypsilanti, Mich., October 28, 1843. In 1878, with some previous preparatory study of medicine, she entered the Homeopathic Medical Department of the University of Michigan, and graduated in 1879. She began practice at Big Rapids, where she remained seven years, after which she removed to Grand Rapids, her present home.

Hugo R. Arndt, M. D., one of the most widely known of the former physicians of Grand Rapids, was born at Cuestrin, Brandenburg, Prussia, January 18, 1848. Having graduated at the gymnasium of his native town, he spent one year in university study, when he emigrated to America in 1865. Continuing his medical studies with his father, who was a physician in Northern Ohio, he entered the Cleveland Homeopathic College and graduated in 1869. Having practiced for short periods in Erie county, Ohio, and at Hubbardston and Ionia, Mich., in 1878, at the solicitation of Dr. Hempel, he came to Grand Rapids, where he remained seven years. That time was devoted to building up a successful practice and to laborious work advancing the interests of his profession. In 1885 he relinquished his practice to accept the Professorship of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, and the Clinical Professorship of Nervous Diseases in the Homeopathic Medical College of the University of Michigan, which position, with universal regrets on the part of his colleagues and the profession, he was compelled to resign in 1889, to seek the more genial climate of San Diego, Cal., for his wife's failing health. His ability as a medical writer is marked and universally recognized, the most prominent of his works being the Revision of Hempel's Materia Medica and Therapeutics (2 vols., 1880), Arndt's System of Medicine (3 vols., 1885), a large number of essays, especially his "Clinical Study of the High Potency Question," and a criticism of the International Hahnemannian Association, both aiming at the establishment of Homeopathy, pure and simple as opposed to Hahnemannism. From 1880 to 1887 he was editor-in-chief of the Homeopathic Medical Counselor, and was for a number of years the dramatic editor of the Grand Rapids Daily Democrat. He has been highly honored by his profession, having been elected President of the Michigan Homeopathic Medical Society, President of the Western Academy of Homeopathy, Corresponding Member of the Massachusetts Homeopathic Medical Society, Member of Committee for the United States for publication of the Cyclopedia of Drug Pathogenesy, Member of Board of Directors of Provings of American Institute of Homeopathy, and Member of Committee of the same Society for revision and publication of Homeopathic Pharmacopoea.

Arthur T. Bodle, M. D., was born July 18, 1858, at Middletown, N. Y.; obtained his early education in Wallkill Academy; journeyed westward and entered the office of Dr. N. B. Delamater of Chicago, for preparatory study of medicine; three years later entered the Chicago Homeopathic Medical College, and graduated therefrom in 1883. His standing in his studies and hospital work commended itself so highly to his professors that soon after graduation he was appointed Resident Physician of the hospital, but declining the position he went to England, spent five months in the general hospital at Liverpool, and then returned to begin practice at Traverse City, Mich. He remained there over two years, after which he came to Grand Rapids, succeeding to the office and practice of Dr. H. R. Arndt, who in that year accepted a professorship in the University of Michigan. Dr. Bodle is also a member of the State Homeopathic Medical Society. Alban B. Botsford, M. D., was born at Arcade, Genesee county, N. Y., September 1, 1823. He received an academic education and began the study of medicine with Dr. Ira Shedd. In 1859 he entered the Homeopathic department of the Eclectic Medical College of Cincinnati, O., and graduated the following year. After practicing in his native town for a short time, he settled in the South, first at Owen, Ky., where he remained four years, and afterward at Franklin, St. Mary's Parish, La., where he practiced until the breaking out of the War of the Rebellion. At that time, being regarded with suspicion as friendly to the North, he was waited upon by the vigilance committees, and was requested to leave the country. Coming 'north, he entered the army as Captain in the Seventy-eighth New York Volunteers. For meritorious service at the battle of Antietam, he was promoted to Major, and his regiment having been transferred to the Department of the Gulf, after the capture of New Orleans, he was promoted to the Colonelcy. With his regiment he was engaged in the famous campaigns against Port Hudson and Mobile, and commanded a brigade in the Red River campaign. A short time after the fall of Mobile, he resigned his commission to accept the position of Post Surgeon in one of the principal army hospitals at New Orleans. After the close of the war he resumed the practice of his profession at Albion, N. Y., where, with the exception of two years, during which time he attended and graduated at Cleveland Homeopathic Medical College in 1872, he remained till 1875, when he came to Grand Rapids and entered into partnership with his older brother, Dr. Alvah H. Botsford. A few years later, the older brother becoming afflicted with a malady, causing his death in 1879, Dr. A. B. succeeded to the whole practice, in which he has continued to the present time, warning by his genial manner the esteem of a large circle of warm friends, and acquiring by good judgment and diligence in his profession a comfortable property.

ALVAH H. BOTSFORD, M. D., was born in Franklin, St. Lawrence County, N. Y., in March, 1810, and after a protracted illness died in Grand Rapids, Mich., January 30, 1879. Having acquired in his youth the best education provided by the schools of his time, he went to Northern Illinois, and for a number of years devoted his attention to business. About 1847 be returned to New York and began the study of medicine with Dr. Gray of Buffalo, and after one or two years of reading he entered the Eclectic Medical College of Cincinnati, Ohio, and graduated from the Homeopathic department of that institution in 1850. He returned to Buffalo, and after a few months, practice with Dr. Marvin, a Homeopathic practitioner of that city (referred to elsewhere as the father of Dr. L. D. Marvin of this city), he came west and began practice in Grand Rapids, being then and for some years afterward the only Homeopathic physician in the city. In 1852 he married Mrs. Catherine Ball, who still survives him. From this union was born one son who died in his sixth year. His character and influence were felt especially in the domestic circle of his patrons, who were ever warmly attached to him, but every one who made his acquaintance felt his genial disposition, his sunny kindness of heart. While too busy to engage actively in matters of public weal, yet he was always interested in the welfare of this city, and jealous of its history and its honor. He was a member of the association of old residents, who not only attended his funeral, but attested their appreciation of his exalted character by the adoption of resolutions expressing their sorrow at his death, and their regard for him on account of his personal goodness, his conscientious discharge of professional duties, and his intelligent and beneficial participation in everything that tended to elevate his community. As a physician, Dr. Botsford was an honor to his profession. His sympathetic nature and his conception of the greatness of his calling did not allow him to confine his interest to one school of physicians, to his own class of patrons, or to the purview of his own immediate practice. He was warmly interested in the advancement of medical science, he could recognize the true man and physician in any school, he could sympathize with and aid any human sufferer, and could not be jealous of the success of any of his colleagues. Although for many years he was the only Homeopathic physician in the city, and that at a time when it was usual to ostracise in every way possible any one who dared to believe and practice the new system of therapeutics, Yet by his dignified bearing, his large-mindedness, he disarmed prejudice and was recognized professionally by the great majority of the physicians of the dominant school. He was held in the highest esteem by his colleagues in practice throughout the State; for while he was a believer and practitioner in the law "similia similibus curantur," and had the courage to stand by that belief, disregarding all expedients in practice, yet he recognized the liberty of every one to believe and practice as he deemed best. Two Homeopathic societies of this city and Western Michigan adopted resolutions expressive of their appreciation of his character as a i true physician, and the great loss the profession sustained by his death. His practice in this city was a very extensive and successful one, counting among his patrons many of the best in all classes of society. In Dr. Botsford's death not only did the community lose a most worthy citizen and benefactor, and his profession a highly honored pioneer and faithful co-worker, but the Church also lost a consistent and devoted adherent and as proof of this, is here given the preamble and resolutions adopted April 2, 1879, by the Westminster Presbyterian Church, of which he was one of the oldest and most prominent members:

WHEREAS, It has pleased God in His allwise providence to remove from earth our friend and brother, Dr. A. H. Botsford, and WHEREAS, We recognize his devotion to the spiritual and temporal interests of our Church from the date of its organization, and WHEREAS, He was the only surviving member of our first session in active service; therefore Resolved, That we mourn the loss of one whose genial qualities endeared him to each of us and led us to see in him a true friend in every time of trial and need. Resolved, That as a Church we recognize his devotion in the days of our weakness a devotion and interest which were never relaxed, though disease and physical infirmity prevented an active participation in our counsels. Resolved, That while we lament his departure from us, we rejoice that by his life he has done much for truth and right, and that we can remember his example as worthy of lasting remembrance and imitation. Resolved, That we as a Session and Church extend our sympathies to her who with us mourns his death, and commend her to the Father of Mercies, who alone can comfort in bereavement.

Homer C. Brigham, M. D., was born July 10, 1851, at Waitsfield, Vt.; obtained his academic education at Montpelier-, began the study of medicine with his father, Gershom N. Brigham, M. D., and attended courses of lectures at the Philadelphia Homeopathic Medical College and New York Homeopathic Medical College, taking his degree from the latter in 1872. For merit, immediately after Graduation, he was appointed assistant to Dr. Helmuth, the celebrated surgeon of New York, remaining there one year, and then returned to his native State, where he practiced at North field two years, and at Montpelier eleven years. While in practice at Montpelier he took a clinical course at the New York Post Graduate Medical School. In 1885 lie re moved to New York city, but had practiced there less than a year when he was called to Grand Rapids to take the extensive practice left by his father, who died in 1886. While in New York city he received an appointment to the staff of Ward's Island Homeopathic Hospital. He was a member of the New York Homeopathic Medical Society, was President of the Vermont Homeopathic Medical Society, was a member of the U. S. Pension Examining Board for Central Vermont, and is now a member of the Michigan Homeopathic Medical Society.

Gershom N. Brigham, M. D., was born in Fayston, Vt., March 3, 182o. After finishing his academic studies, he began the study of medicine. With some preparatory reading, he entered Woodstock (Vt.) Medical College, took three courses of lectures, and graduated in 184.5. After practicing for short periods at Warren and Waitsfield, Vt., in 1849 he removed to Montpelier, where he made his home for over twenty years. Before going to Montpelier he became interested in the theories of the Homeopathists, and for the purpose of pursuing his investigations further he went to New York city, not only taking a course of lectures in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, and spending much time in visiting hospitals, but also studying with the different Homeopathic physicians of that city who were prominent in their practice. Dr. Brigham returned to his practice in Vermont a most ardent advocate of the new system of therapeutics, and he adhered to his belief so uncompromisingly that he was ever impatient of any resort to empirical or palliative treatment in practice on the part of any of his colleagues. In 1875 he came to Grand Rapids, where he lived until June 21, 1886, when he died suddenly of neuralgia of the heart, while visiting at Rogers Park, Ill. Although always a busy practitioner, yet he found time to become deeply, interested in public affairs and to bear important public trusts. His contributions to general literature were numerous and praiseworthy, consisting of occasional lectures on education, temperance, and sundry scientific subjects, as well as essays and poems, a volume of which, entitled "The Harvest Moon and other Poems," was published in 1870. He also left in MSS. a play entitled "Benedict Arnold." He was a frequent contributor to the various medical journals of his school, and wrote two medical works, the subjects of which were "Catarrhal Diseases" and "Pulmonary Consumption." He was one of the prime movers in the organization of the Vermont Homeopathic Medical Society, and the Michigan Hahnemannian Medical Society, of both of which he became President. He was a member of the American Institute of Homeopathy, and also of the International Hahnernannian Association. Louisa M. Butts, M. D., the oldest lady physician in Grand Rapids, was born in Pownal, Vt., January, 1828. Her academic education was received in Allen Seminary, Rochester, N. Y. After many years study of medicine, in 1868 she entered Cleveland Homeopathic Medical College, and graduated therefrom in 1870. She also took a postgraduate course of study in Hahneniann College of Chicago in 1879. She practiced in Chicago from 1870 to 1874, when site removed to Grand Rapids.

Erastus R. Ellis, M. D., was born in Pittsttown, N. Y., March 3, 1832. At the age of twelve he removed with his parents to Michigan. After pursuing a course of study in the old St. Mark's College in this city, he followed the profession of civil engineer. At the age of twenty-one he commenced the study of medicine under the tuition of his uncle, John Ellis, attended the medical department of the University, one year, and graduated at the Western College of Homeopathy at Cleveland, Ohio, in 1857. In 1858 he began practice in Grand Rapids, remaining until 1867, when he removed to a Detroit, where he now resides. While practicing in this city, he was appointed Examining Surgeon for Pensions, and obtained a wide and favorable reputation as a surgeon. He was at one time Professor of Surgery in the Detroit Homeopathic College. In 1868 he published a work entitled: "Homeopathic Guide and Information for the people," and subsequently published several valuable monographs related to the practice of Homeopathy, and a periodical entitled: Michigan Journal of Homeopathy.

John Ellis, M. D., was the first physician to introduce into Grand Rapids the practice of Homeopathy. He was born in Ashfield, Mass, in 1815. In 1841 he graduated at the Berkshire Medical College, Pittsfield, Mass. After further attendance upon lectures in the Albany Medical College, he began practice at Chesterfield, Mass. He came to Grand Rapids in 1843. Here, having for some months been interested in the study of Homeopathic system of prescribing medicine, he gradually substituted if for the old method. He remained in this city only two years, but his practice was a successful one. Here he performed an operation which at that time was considered one of the most remarkable surgical cases on record that of litigating both carotid arteries to check secondary hemorrhage, the patient recovering. (See Mott's Velpeau.) In 1845 he entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City, but spent most of his time in visiting Homeopathic physicians, from whom he received much information. After a year of study and investigation in regard to their system of medicine, he removed to Detroit, Mich., where, associated with Dr. Wheaton and still later with Dr. E. B. Thayer, he continued in successful practice for fifteen years. While living in the city, he, with the aid of Dr, Thayer and others, for two or three years published the Michigan Journal of Homeopathy. The object of the publication was to disseminate the knowledge of the new system among the people, and to secure the right of representation of Homeopathy in Michigan University and other institutions. He wrote two popular medical works, entitled "Avoidable Causes of Disease, Deformity, and Insanity," and "Family Homeopathy." He was for a time also President of the Michigan Institute of Homeopathy. During the last five years of his residence in Detroit, he was Professor of Theory and Practice in the Western College of Homeopathy at Cleveland, Ohio. In 1862 he moved to New York to accept the chair of Theory and Practice in the Homeopathic Medical College for Women. In 1873 he retired from active practice of medicine and became engaged in the business of refining lubricating oils, in which he is still interested, and from which he has amassed a fortune.

Amanda J. Evans, M. D., was born at Bristol, Indiana, in .1844. She began the study of medicine in 1863, but was unable to continue it regularly until 1876, when she matriculated in the Homeopathic Department of the University of Michigan, graduating in 1880. She practiced in Middleville, Barry county, Michigan, until March, 1889, when she removed to Grand Rapids.

Charles Julius Hempel, M. D., no doubt the most widely celebrated personage that has resided in this city, was born in Solintgen, Prussia, Sept. 5, 1811. After completing a university education, he went to Paris, to avoid military service required by law, and pursued a course of literary study in College de France. Prof. Michelet, recognizing the ability of young Hempel, brought him into his family and chose him as his assistant in the preparation and publication of his "History of France." While a member of Michelet's household he became acquainted with many prominent Americans, and through their influence he came to America, landing at New York, Sept. 5, 1835. His first work was thoroughly to perfect himself in the knowledge of the English language, and in so doing he made, the acquaintance of some of the most talented literary characters of that city. Having decided to adopt the medical profession, he entered the Medical Department of the University of New York and became one of its earliest graduates. Before attending medical lectures the doctrine of Homeopathy had won his hearty sympathy, and while pursuing his work in the college he was simultaneously studying the 'new sys tem of therapeutics with Drs. Gram, Gray, Hering, and others of the earliest Homeopathic practitioners in America. After graduation he began the translation of the leading works on Homeopathy, most of which being written in German were thus far closed books to American students, and while engaged in his practice there came from his pen in quick succession translations of "Hahnemann's Materia Medica" (4 vols.), "Hahnemann's Chronic Diseases," (5 vols.), "Hartmann's Acute and Chronic Diseases" (4 vols.), Jahr's Medical Works" (7 vols.), "Baer's Acute and Chronic Diseases," "Teste's Materia Medica," "Small's Domestic Physician," "Raue's Organon of Homeopathy," and later in life he translated "Schiller's Complete Works." In addition to the above, the following original works were published by him: "Hempel's Domestic Physician," "Organon of Homeopathy," "A Life of Christ" written in German, "The True Organization of the New Church," and "A System of Materia Medica and Therapeutics" (2 VOIS), in the revision of which he, with the aid of Dr. H. R. Arndt, occupied the last hours of his life. Dr. Hempel's superior attainments, his zeal and devotion to the interests of his profession, as well as his purity of character and charming disposition, made him universally respected and beloved, fully meriting the homage of his large circle of friends and the frequent honors and compliments showered upon him by medical colleges and associations throughout both hemispheres. While living in New York he became acquainted with and married a daughter of the late George Coggeshall, of Grand Rapids. In 1856, soon after his marriage, he was chosen Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics in the Homeopathic Medical College of Philadelphia, which position he filled with great satisfaction to his profession till 1861, when the death of his father-in-law made it necessary to remove with his family to Grand Rapids. Here he was soon engaged in an extensive practice, from which he was obliged to retire on account of failing health in 1869. Almost immediately upon coming to Grand Rapids he was recommended by his profession in Michigan to the Regents of the State University as a proper person to fill the Chair of Homeopathy created in the University by an act of the Legislature; but, through influences hostile to his school of medicine, the Regents evaded the law and he never was appointed. He lived long enough, however, to have his hopes realized in the establishment of a complete Homeopathic Department in the University. In 1869 his naturally delicate constitution began to succumb to the weight of labor put upon it, and although by entire relief from practice, and by foreign travel, he sought to regain his health, his physical powers steadily declined, and he died in this city Sept. 23, 1879.

Frances S. Hillyer, M. D., was born at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., in September, 184 She married at the age of nineteen and lived in New Jersey and Georgia from 1865 to 1874, after which she went to Washington City and began the study of medicine in Howard University, from which she graduated in 1877. After devoting three years to clinical work in the hospitals at Washington and to the investigation of Homeopathy, which she adopted, she received the appointment of Resident Physician of the Industrial Home for Girls at Adrian, Mich.; held the position one year and then entered practice in Grand Rapids. She has contributed, several papers to the Michigan Homeopathic Medical Society, and has been prominent in the management of the U. B. A. Home of this city. Frank Lindly Hoag, M. D., was born at Homer, N. Y., September 2, 1857, acquired his academic education at Homer (N. Y.) Academy, and at the State Normal School at Cortland, N. Y., and for four years was principal of the Union School at Accord, N. Y. He then began to study medicine, entered the Chicago Hahnemann Medical College in 1882, and graduated from the Chicago Homeopathic Medical College in 1884. After practicing at Cincinnatus and Cortland, N. Y., four years he determined to leave general practice and devote his time to the special treatment of diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat. Accordingly, for about two years he was in New York City taking special courses in the Polyclinic Hospital, in Prof. Knapp's Ophthalmic and Aural Institute, and in the New York Ophthalmic College and Hospital, from which he graduated in 1889. He began the practice of his specialty in Grand Rapids, July, 1890.

De Forest Hunt, M. D., was born in Maine, near Binghamton, N. Y., August 15, 1842. His father was Dr. Samuel Hunt, whose grandfather was a surgeon in the Revolutionary War. Dr. De F. Hunt received his early education in the academies at Cortland and Binghamton, N. Y., and afterward studied law in the University of Wisconsin. After graduating in law, and returning to New York, he abandoned the profession he had first chosen, and, with some previous study with his father, entered the medical department of the University of the City of New York, graduated in 1864 and began practice at Marathon, N. Y. In the first few years, observing some forcible illustrations of the results of treatment according to the Homeopathic law, he was led to make a thorough study and investigation of that system, and in 1868 he adopted it. In 1869 he removed to Grand Rapids, where, with the exception of one and a half years of travel and study in Europe, he has since lived and acquired a large practice. He has been a frequent contributor to the medical journals of his school, has written a monograph on "Diphtheria," and was Professor of Diseases of Women and Children in Michigan Homeopathic College, organized at Lansing in 1871 and existing only for two years. He was at different times Secretary and Vice-President of the Michigan Homeopathic Medical Society, and is now a member of the International Hahnemannian Association. Robert M. Luton, M. D., was born Aug. 31, 1850, at Mapleton, Ontario. After preparatory study of medicine he entered the Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, and graduated from that institution in 1873. Subsequently he attended a course of lectures at Trinity College, Toronto, and began active practice at Newaygo, Mich., where he remained four years. He then removed to Grand Rapids, where, excepting an interval of three years in which he engaged in business, he has since resided.

La Dor Marvin, M. D., was born at Buffalo, N. Y., Sept. 26, 1851. He belongs to a family of physicians, his father being one of the first physicians in Western New York to champion the new system of therapeutics, his mother still, continuing a limited practice since her husband's death, and two of his brothers also being prominent physicians of the new school. Having completed his academic education at Fredonia, N. Y., he entered the Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, and graduated in 1877. He began practice at Sioux City, Iowa, but after a few months removed to Grand Rapids, Mich., where he has since resided.

Samuel G. Milner, M. D., was born in Eastern Ohio in 1846. After profiting by the best educational facilities his native place afforded, in the fall of 1868 he entered the literary Department of the University of Michigan, from which he received the degree of A. B. in 1872, and that of A. M. in 1876. Immediately after graduation he was appointed the principalship of the Union School at Grand Rapids, which position he held for thirteen years. In 1885 he entered the Homeopathic Medical College of the University of Michigan, and received the degree of M. D. in 1887. After graduation he was appointed Resident Physician of the hospital of the Homeopathic Medical College, but declined that to accept the position of Assistant to the Professor of Theory and Practice, and to the Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children, in ate same institution. Six months later he resigned and returned to Grand Rapids to enter practice. He was for a time on the editorial staff of the Homeopathic Medical Counselor. He is also a member of the Homeopathic Medical Society of Michigan, and was one of the prime movers in the organization of the College of Homeopathic Physicians and Surgeons of Grand Rapids, in 1890.

Walter Scott Shotwell, A. M., M. D., was born at Newark, New Jersey, June 14, 1844; graduated from the Literary Department of the Kansas State University in 1874 and from the Homeopathic Medical College of Missouri, at St. Louis in 1883 Since taking his degree in medicine he has been in active practice, three years in Peoria, Ill., and four years in Grand Rapids. His practice has been confined chiefly to the diseases of the rectum and lower bowels, employing generally the treatment by electricity. He has contributed to the interests of the profession by the invention of a rectoscope, an instrument well received by the profession, and has written for some of the medical journals several valuable articles on subjects relating to his specialty.

Daniel S. Sinclair, M. D., was born April 11, 1850, at St. Thomas, Ontario; completed a classical course of instruction in St. Thomas Collegiate Institute; began the study of medicine with his brother, Dr. Coll Sinclair, of Aylmer, Ontario; entered the Chicago Homeopathic Medical College, and took the degree of M. D. in 1887. Since that time he has been in practice with his brother, Dr. M. C. Sinclair, in this city. He became a member of the Michigan Homeopathic Medical Society in 1890

Malcolm C. Sinclair, M. D., was born in St. Thomas. Ontario, Oct. 3, 1850. He began the study of medicine at the age of eighteen, after two years of preparatory residing entered Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, and graduated in 1873. He opened practice at Newaygo, Mich., but shortly afterward removed to Grand Rapids. Soon after settling here, sickness in his family caused him to relinquish practice for four years, during which time he traveled in the South and made a trip to England and Scotland, spending considerable time in investigating the medical treatment in the hospitals of those countries. In 1878 he returned to Grand Rapids and has succeeded in building up a very extensive practice. He is a member of the Michigan State Homeopathic Society, and was prominent in the organization of the College of Homeopathic Physicians and Surgeons of Grand Rapids, of which he was elected the first President.

Isaiah J. Whitfield, M. D., was born in Upper Canada, Feb. 23, 1835. Taking up his residence in the States some years before the War of the Rebellion, he enlisted as a private in the Fourth Iowa Volunteers, was promoted successively to Orderly Sergeant and Hospital Steward, and later became Assistant Surgeon. He served in all four years and seven months. His experience in the army hospitals developed in him an interest in medicine, and after a few months preparatory study he entered the Medical Department at Ann Arbor and attended the lectures of one year. After several years practice in one of the new towns of Northern Michigan, he entered the Cleveland Homeopathic Medical College, graduating in 1870. He then settled in Big Rapids, Mich., remaining there two years, after which he removed to Grand Rapids, where he has acquired a large and lucrative practice. In the last few years, owing to over-work, he has to some extent been withdrawing from general practice, to engage in the specialty of orificial surgery, to which he has devoted considerable attention, taking two or three post graduate courses of lectures in Chicago. With all his activity in professional life, he has found time to be an energetic religious worker, and has been the Senior Elder in the Church of Christ since its organization in this city in 1874. He has always been prominently interested in the social and moral questions of the day, being especially zealous in the prohibitory movement, the convention of that party twice making him its candidate for Mayor of Grand Rapids.

Herbert Whitworth, M. D., was born in England, Feb. 19, 1843. At the age of seven he and his parents emigrated to America, and the days of his boyhood were spent upon a Michigan farm. In 1863 he enlisted in the First Michigan Engineers and Mechanics, and was mustered out at the close of the war. After engaging for some years in business, he entered Oberlin College, but did not remain long enough to take a degree. In 1873 he entered Pulte Medical College at Cincinnati, receiving his degree of M. D. in 1875, and settled for practice at Niles, Mich. After six years of practice there, and an attendance of six months upon the clinics of Dr. T. A. Emmett, the famous gynecologist, and of Dr. W. Tod Helmuth, the noted surgeon of New York city, he came to Grand Rapids. He is a member of the Homeopathic Medical Society of Michigan, and was at one time a Vice President of that body. For a time he was associated with Dr. H. R. Arndt in the editorship of the Homeopathic Medical Counselor, formerly published in this city, and has contributed articles to other medical journals, and read papers before the Michigan Homeopathic Medical Society.


Document Source: Baxter, Albert, History of the City of Grand Rapids, New York and Grand Rapids: Munsell & Company, Publishers, 1891.
Location of Original: Various.
Transcriber: Jessica M. Trotter
URL: http://kent.migenweb.net/baxter1891/62medicines.html
 
Created: 26 September 1999[an error occurred while processing this directive]